Propolis Power-Up: How Beekeepers Can Encourage Resin Deposits For Better Hive Health

Entomology Today By Andrew Porterfield

Propolis is a pliable, resinous mixture that honey bees (Apis mellifera) create by mixing a variety of plant resins, saliva, and beeswax and which they apply to interior surfaces of their hives, namely at points of comb attachment and to seal up cracks and crevices on the interior side of hive walls. Greater propolis production is connected with improved hive health, and a new study finds a few simple methods beekeepers can employ to stimulate increased propolis production. (Photo credit: Flickr/Ontario Beekeepers’ Association Tech Transfer Program, CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

Propolis is a pliable, resinous mixture that honey bees (Apis mellifera) create by mixing a variety of plant resins, saliva, and beeswax and which they apply to interior surfaces of their hives, namely at points of comb attachment and to seal up cracks and crevices on the interior side of hive walls. Greater propolis production is connected with improved hive health, and a new study finds a few simple methods beekeepers can employ to stimulate increased propolis production. (Photo credit: Flickr/Ontario Beekeepers’ Association Tech Transfer Program, CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

Propolis, a mass of plant resins built by honey bees inside their hives, has drawn attention in recent years partly because of its alleged (but as yet unproven) health benefits to humans. But, perhaps more important, it also shows health benefits to bees themselves. Created from resins and other oils and fats collected from trees, propolis helps preserve the structural integrity of a bee hive and protects against wood decay, fungus, and water.

Propolis has also been connected to benefiting honey bee (Apis mellifera) immune systems, saving energy that would otherwise have been used to protect against nest-invading beetles like Aethina tumidaor parasites like the Varroa destructor mite, Nosema fungus, and viruses. In the past, some beekeepers have tried to keep their hives “clean” of propolis, believing it impeded with honey-making activities. Today, though, scientists and beekeepers have begun looking at encouraging propolis production to help sustain healthy hives.

In a new study published today in the Journal of Economic Entomology, three researches—Cynthia Hodges, master beekeeper and co-owner of Hodges Honey Apiaries in Dunwoody, Georgia; Keith Delaplane, Ph.D., entomology professor at the University of Georgia; and Berry Brosi, Ph.D., associate professor of environmental science at Emory University in Atlanta—looked at four different ways to enhance propolis growth in bee hives. The team found that three surface modifications—plastic trap material on the hive wall interior, parallel saw cuts on hive wall interior, and brush-roughened wall interiors—were all equally capable of resulting in increased propolis production, compared to a fourth method, a control, in which the hive wall interiors we left unmodified.

The researchers divided 20 colonies into five apiary sites and randomly applied one of the three texture treatments or control to each colony. Bees in the colonies foraged for propolis resins from plants common to the Appalachian Piedmont in the southeastern U.S., including conifers, oaks, pecan, red maple, yellow poplar, and urban ornamental plants. The researchers then measured extensiveness and depth of propolis deposits in the hives over time.

Researchers in Georgia tested three different ways to texturize the interiors of honey bee (Apis mellifera) hive walls to stimulate production of propolis: at left, plastic propolis traps are attached to the walls; at center, walls are modified with five parallel saw kerfs, 7 centimeters apart, cut 3 millimeters deep into the surface; and, at right, walls are roughened with a mechanized wire brush. All three treatments stimulated increased propolis production over smooth, unmodified walls. (Left image originally published in Borba et al 2015, Journal of Experimental Biology; center and right images originally published in Hodges et al 2018, Journal of Economic Entomology)

Researchers in Georgia tested three different ways to texturize the interiors of honey bee (Apis mellifera) hive walls to stimulate production of propolis: at left, plastic propolis traps are attached to the walls; at center, walls are modified with five parallel saw kerfs, 7 centimeters apart, cut 3 millimeters deep into the surface; and, at right, walls are roughened with a mechanized wire brush. All three treatments stimulated increased propolis production over smooth, unmodified walls. (Left image originally published in Borba et al 2015, Journal of Experimental Biology; center and right images originally published in Hodges et al 2018, Journal of Economic Entomology)

Their results showed that any hive interior treatment significantly increased propolis deposition compared to a non-treatment control. Sampling over time showed propolis hoarding and accumulation, as well. None of the texture treatments showed significantly different results from each other.

While all treatments resulted in more propolis deposition, the researchers point to the roughened interior of the hive walls as the best method for encouraging deposition. In fact, leaving lumber naturally rough, with no planning or sanding, would provide a simple and effective surface for boosting propolis, they write.

“We come down in favor of roughened or un-planed wood,” says Delaplane, “because, unlike the plastic trap, it will not subtract from the bee space engineered around the walls and combs. What you see in our pictures is the work of a steel brush. Naturally un-planed wood would be much rougher and, I would expect, even better at stimulating propolis deposition.”

Other researchers have shown that propolis development has a strong effect on the members of the bee hive. These other investigations have shown that interior walls painted with propolis extract resulted in colonies with lower bacterial loads and with worker bees that expressed lower levels of immune gene expression. Sustained activation of immune genes comes at an energy cost, which can result in a reduction in brood numbers and pose a threat to overall colony health. Further studies have shown that reduced immune activation (and therefore less energy spent on fighting infection) comes from reduced pathogen loads in high-propolis colonies and not from immune suppression by propolis.

“I don’t know of any beekeepers deliberately encouraging their bees to collect propolis,” says Delaplane, adding that many keepers in the past have tried to clear propolis from their hives. “But today we know that this bias is misdirected. I believe encouraging propolis deposition is one more thing beekeepers can do to partner with biology instead of ignore it.”

https://entomologytoday.org/2018/11/28/propolis-how-beekeepers-encourage-better-hive-health/

What Is Bee Propolis? 10 Great Uses

Global Healing Center  By   June 13, 2014

(This article by Dr. Edward Group DC, NP, DACBN, DCBCN, DABFM was originally posted June 13, 2014 in the Global Healing Center. It is featured in The American Apitherapy Society July 2017 Newsletter where you can sign up for the newsletter and learn more about the 2017 Charles Mraz Apitherapy Course And Conference, Theory In Practice, A Hands-On Approach, November 10-12, 2017at The Redondo Beach Hotel, Redondo Beach, CA)

Most people are familiar with the gorgeous yellow and amber colors typical of honeycomb and beeswax. But another bee-produced substance exists and it doesn’t get discussed quite as much — propolis. Propolis is a resinous material that bees use to seal small cracks and gaps in the hive (beeswax seals the larger gaps). It’s made when bees collect resin from trees and other sources and mix it with a little bit of honey. Like its cousin, beeswax, propolis has been found to offer numerous health benefits, and many researchers are looking into its role for various therapeutic uses.

The Benefits and Uses for Propolis

In ancient cultures, propolis (or bee resin) was often used for abscesses and minor wounds. [1] [2] Bees, in an effort to close gaps in hives, use propolis as a precautionary measure to keep out dangerous microbes and fungi. [3] Recent findings have confirmed its potent action against many harmful pathogens and more research has established its enormous healing benefits. Here are some of the researched uses and health benefits of propolis.

Use #1: Discourage Infection

Researchers have tested propolis against several dangerous microbes, and the results suggest that propolis is powerful against aggressive bacteria. [4] Although the strength of propolis can vary based on geography, its protective benefits remain constantly present. Part of the reason for the action may be due to it containing a wide spectrum of flavonoids. [5]

Use #2: Natural Antibiotic

Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem in medicine, often due to the overuse of antibiotic medication. People who are taking antibiotics are often advised to take probiotics to aid in the preservation of good bacteria in the intestines. Researchers have determined that propolis offers powerful antibiotic properties. The isolated acids from propolis have been shown to be an effective agent against many bacteria, including staph. [6]

Use #3: Minor Burns

In one study, Brazilian propolis was tested against a common prescription cream used to help burns. The results? The propolis was just as effective. Propolis was even more soothing for minor burns than the conventional medication. [7] [8]

Use #4: Ear Infections

Middle-ear infections affect millions of children each year, and even adults. Sometimes it can lead to temporary hearing loss, a terrifying prospect for most people. A compound in propolis, caffeic acid phenethyl ester, has shown effectiveness at easing inner ear inflammation. Although preliminary, this new research is causing a buzz (pun intended) of hopeful outlook for the use of propolis. [9]

Use #5: Supports the Immune System

Candida albicans, a fungus characterized by yeast overgrowth, usually affects the genital and oral areas. In the ever-continuing quest for finding a suitable and effective remedy, researchers analyzed propolis. Results indicated that propolis may inhibit Candida from growing, and it has the potential for stimulating a healthy immune response to Candida infestation. [10]

Use #6: Nail Infections

Lab tests examining the use of propolis against fungal nail infections found that propolis offered a greater range of protection compared to a popularly-prescribed pharmaceutical. The pharmaceutical product was resistant to seven of the fungi, an issue not displayed by propolis. [11]

Use #7: Vaginal Herpes

By some accounts, propolis has been found to be more effective than some pharmaceutical applications against vaginal herpes. Tests also suggest that propolis may significantly reduce the chance of an advanced herpes infection. [12] In addition, as suggested above, propolis may offer protection against genital Candida infections. [13]

Use #8: Dental Care

The link between oral health and overall physical health has been documented for decades. There’s no question that a proper dental regimen is an important part of enjoying vibrant wellbeing. With the increasing concern of exposure to fluoride, natural dental care has gained much attention. Currently, beneficial properties of propolis have suggested its effectiveness at promoting oral health…even possibly being a natural alternative to fluoride. [14] [15]

Use #9: Blood Sugar

Diabetes is an issue that affects millions of adults and children. It is often approached with life-long treatment measures, such as insulin injections and pharmaceutical medications. Studies have shown that propolis may inhibit enzymes that increase blood sugar. [16] [17] It is believed that the antioxidant compounds in propolis are responsible for its blood sugar-stabilizing benefits.

Use #10: Carcinogen Fighter

Take this with a grain of salt, but ancient Assyrians would often use propolis to inhibit tumor growth, and recent research suggests some logic behind this. The CAPE compounds found in propolis have been shown to hamper cell growth in cervical and prostate cancer. [18] [19] Certain types of propolis, like the red Brazilian and brown Cuban, have also been shown to combat compounds that contribute to cancer cell growth . [20] [21]

Using Propolis

Propolis is often sold in capsule or tincture form, and some natural toothpastes will contain it instead of fluoride. While many people can safely use propolis as a complementary approach toward health, some may experience allergic reactions. It is always best to test a small amount of the mixture in conjunction with careful physician monitoring before supplementing, especially if you have allergies.

What are your experiences using propolis? Share them with us in the comments!

References (21)

†Results may vary. Information and statements made are for education purposes and are not intended to replace the advice of your doctor. Global Healing Center does not dispense medical advice, prescribe, or diagnose illness. The views and nutritional advice expressed by Global Healing Center are not intended to be a substitute for conventional medical service. If you have a severe medical condition or health concern, see your physician.

https://www.globalhealingcenter.com/natural-health/what-is-bee-propolis-10-great-uses/?a_aid=553999c2f15d0&data1=fb-bee&data2=what-is-bee-propolis-10-great-uses

Propolis

BEE CULTURE   By Stephanie Bruneau   March 23, 2016


What is propolis?

Most beekeepers are all too familiar with the sticky, resinous ‘bee glue,’ propolis, lining the inside of every honeybee hive. You can scrape and scrape all you want – the bees will just replace it! Every tiny gap or drafty crack in the hive will be sealed with propolis, which also coats the hive entrance, walls, and even the honeycomb. But in addition to making hive inspections stickier, propolis serves several crucial functions in the honeybee hive, and has been been recognized as valuable by humans throughout the ages.

At once providing structural support and sterilizing action, propolis has been called both ‘bee glue’ and ‘bee penicillin.’ It is strongly anti-bacterial, inhibiting the growth of any bacteria, fungus, or other unwanted microbe that might thrive in the warm and humid hive environment. In fact, the word ‘propolis’ is derived from the Greek ‘pro’ (in front of, at the entrance to) and polis (community or city), meaning ‘before the city’ or ‘in defense of the city’ (ie, the hive). Bees also use propolis to contain potential pathogens brought in by mice and other hive intruders. These intruders will be killed by the bees, and their carcasses mummified in propolis to prevent their decay from degrading the hive environment.

The bees make propolis from tree resins that they collect from leaf buds and tree sap. Worker bees collect the resins and carry them back to the hive on their legs in their pollen baskets. Perhaps because the resin is so sticky, the worker bees cannot unload it themselves (unlike pollen), rather, they have to have another bee unload their bounty for them. The bees mix the collected resins with wax, honey, and enzymes from their stomachs to turn it into the amazing and ever-useful substance that we know as propolis. The end composition is ~50% resins, 30% waxes, 10% essential oils, 5% pollen and 5% plant debris, although each hive’s propolis is a bit different, based on the variety of unique resins collected from a given hive’s local trees.

How is propolis harvested by the beekeeper?

To harvest propolis, the beekeeper places a flexible plastic screen with cracks on top of the frames in the hive, underneath the hive cover. The fastidious bees will quickly work to seal all of the cracks with propolis. This plastic screen can be easily removed by the beekeeper and placed temporarily in the refrigerator or freezer – the propolis, which is soft and sticky in the warm hive, will quickly become brittle in the cold. Flexing the screen easily cracks the brittle resin off of the screen where it can be collected.

How has propolis been used by people – past and present?

Propolis has been used for health and healing since ancient times – at least since the time of Aristotle (384 – 322 BC), who is actually said to have coined the word ‘propolis’ himself! Taking advantage of its antiseptic qualities, Ancient Egyptians used propolis to embalm cadavers. In ancient Greece, Aristotle (384 – 322 BC), the physician Pedanius Dioscorides (40 – 90 AD) and Galen (129 – 217 AD) prominent Greek physician).

In ancient Rome, the naturalist and author Pliny the Elder (23 – 79 AD) used propolis extensively. In his famous Natural History, he wrote that “propolis is produced from the sweet gum of the vine or the poplar, and is of a denser consistency, the juices of flowers being added to it. Still, however, it cannot be properly termed wax, but rather the foundation of the honey-combs; by means of it all inlets are stopped up, which might, otherwise, serve for the admission of cold or other injurious influences.”(1) Pliny also wrote that propolis “has the property of extracting stings and all foreign bodies from the flesh, dispersing tumours, ripening indurations, allaying pains of the sinews, and cicatrizing ulcers of the most obstinate nature.”(2)

The ancient Jews also considered ‘tzori’ (the Hebrew word for propolis) to be medicine, and tzori is mentioned throughout the Old Testament.(3)

In more recent times there has been a significant amount of research on the biological activity of propolis, and many of the healing properties that so many civilizations have touted in propolis throughout the ages have been confirmed by modern day science. Research has demonstrated its anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-viral, and anti-inflammatory properties, its ability to protect the liver, to increase the body’s natural resistance to viruses and infections, to heal problems of the mouth and gums, and to treat peptic ulcers (among other attributes). At least 180 different compounds have been identified so far.

Today, propolis is used as a popular remedy. Current sales of propolis in the United States are estimated at 40,000 lb/yr. Because of its long and varied list of touted benefits, the range of uses is long and varied in home remedies and body care products. It is available in capsules, as an extract in alcohol or glycerin, as a mouthwash, and can be found in many creams and cosmetics.

Recipes!

You can make your own products from raw propolis very easily! You can collect propolis using a propolis trap as described above, or you can scrape small amounts from the edges and sides of your hive components.

Raw propolis can be easily infused into a topical cream or oil, a liquid (propolis extract), and can be purchased at your local natural foods store in capsule form as well. Together these products are an amazing defense system at your service, with an ability to assist your body with healing and germ fighting.

Propolis Infused Oil

Of all methods of infusion, research indicates that an oil extract of propolis may have the strongest anti-microbial effect. Applied topically, propolis oil is soothing and healing on cuts and abrasions. Propolis infused oil can be used as an ingredient in lotions or salves, and can work wonders on areas of skin irritation or severe dryness such as psoriasis or eczema.

Materials

  • ~10 grams propolis scrapings (about 1 TBS)
  • 7 oz olive oil (other oils can be used, such as apricot kernal oil, sweet almond oil, etc.)
  • Method

    Mix the propolis and oil together in the top of a double boiler. Use a thermometer to monitor the temperature and heat the oil to no higher than 122°F (as higher temperatures may destroy some of the beneficial qualities contained in the propolis). Stir and heat for at least 30 minutes, and up to four hours. The propolis will not all dissolve.

    Strain this mixture through cheesecloth or a paper coffee filter. If you use cheesecloth, you may have to filter the oil twice. The propolis that remains in the filter can be used again to make more oil – refrigerate or freeze it for another time. Store your finished oil in a sealed jar in a dark place.
    Keep in an amber dropper bottle, and store in your medicine or kitchen cabinet.

    Propolis Tincture

    Mix two parts propolis by weight to nine parts of clear grain alcohol, by weight (we use 75 proof or higher vodka, or Everclear) (Do not use ethanol alcohol – it is poisonous!).

    Mix together in a lidded container, such as a canning jar.  Shake.  Store in a dark place. Shake two to three times a day for one to two weeks. Strain through a cheesecloth or paper coffee filter, and store in a dark place or in a dark jar. You can collect and store the propolis left in in the filter, as it may be reused for another tincture or oil (store in the fridge or freezer).

    Keep in an amber dropper bottle, and store in your medicine or kitchen cabinet.

    Herbal Mouthwash

    Use this as a rinse after brushing at night, and keep the dentist away!

  • 3/4 cup water
  • 1/4 cup vodka
  • 2 dropperfuls calendula tincture
  • 2 dropperfuls echinacea root tincture
  • 1 dropperful myrrh tincture
  • 2 dropperfuls propolis tincture
  • 1 drop peppermint or spearmint essential oil (I actually like it better without this! But others who are used to a minty flavor enjoy this optional addition).
  • (Note that the essential oils and calendula, echinacea and myrrh tinctures can be found in a natural food store.)

    Honey Propolis Throat Spray

    Spray in the back of the mouth anytime sore throat hits! This powerful spray can be great to prevent bacterial throat infections such as strep throat.

    – Mix three TBS of propolis tincture (see recipe above) with two TBS of raw local honey and one TBS of warm water in a spray bottle. The propolis tincture can be combined with other herbal tinctures as well for their immediate relief and longer-lasting benefits in the face of illness; our favorites are echinacea, marshmallow, ginger and/or elderberry tinctures, all of which can be found in a natural food store.


    Stephanie Bruneau is beekeeper, mom, herbalist and artist. She runs The Benevolent Bee selling honey, candles and beeswax-based body care products. She is a co-founder and of the Boston Area Beekeepers Association.
    1. Bostock J, Riley HT, editors. Pliny the Elder, the Natural History, Book XI. The Various Kinds of Insects. London, UK: Taylor and Francis; 1855.

     

    2. Bostock J, Riley HT, editors. Pliny the Elder, the Natural History, Book XXII. The Properties of Plants and Fruits. London, UK: Taylor and Francis; 1855.

    3. The Bible. Jeremiah 8, verse 22, Jeremiah 46, verse 11, Jeremiah 51, verse 8.


    Sources:

     

    Bee Products for Better Health, C. Leigh Broadhurst, PhD, 2013

    Grange, J. M., and R. W. Davey. “Antibacterial properties of propolis (bee glue).” Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 83.3 (1990): 159-160.

    Castaldo, Stefano, and Francesco Capasso. “Propolis, an old remedy used in modern medicine.” Fitoterapia 73 (2002): S1-S6.

    Ghisalberti EL (1979). Propolis: A review. Bee World, 60, 59-84.

    Burdock, G. A. “Review of the biological properties and toxicity of bee propolis (propolis).” Food and Chemical toxicology 36.4 (1998): 347-363.

    Kuropatnicki AK, Szliszka E, Krol W. Historical Aspects of Propolis Research in Modern Times. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM. 2013;2013:964149. doi:10.1155/2013/964149

    Havenhand, Gloria. Honey Nature’s Golden Healer. Firefly Books, 2011.

    The Bible

    Bostock J, Riley HT, editors. Pliny the Elder, the Natural History, Book XI. The Various Kinds of Insects. London, UK: Taylor and Francis; 1855.

    Bostock J, Riley HT, editors. Pliny the Elder, the Natural History, Book XXII. The Properties of Plants and Fruits. London, UK: Taylor and Francis; 1855.

    http://www.beeculture.com/propolis/

    (NOTE: We were discussing propolis at a recent LACBA meeting. Here's some more info from a March 23, 2016 post in Bee Culture.)

    Propolis Against Cancer

    BEESINFO   November 30, 2016
     

    A team of researchers from the Faculty of Higher Cuautitlán of the UNAM , analyze different elements of propolis that will generate benefits against cancer.

    The Propolis is a substance made by bees to cover the walls of their hives, which serves to keep them protected from possible raids. It also has various medicinal powers, as it is known to contain vitamins, minerals and amino acids. Also, it is a natural, antitumor and antiviral antibiotic; while that improve healing, analgesic, among others.

    The group of researchers led by academic Sandra Diaz Barriga , examines amines fenetílicas caffeic acid, which is a synthetic compound obtained from propolis, in order to serve as chemoprotective substances.

    Research has shown that caffeic acid, has antitumor activity in animal models.

    The researcher explained that working together with the Cinvestav Zacatenco, to evaluate these compounds as potential chemoprotective substances that can help prevent liver cancer.

    Diaz Barriga , said that an important part of the research was to find that besides esters, antineoplastic CAPA also have biological activity, ie, prevents the development of malignant tumor cell.

    “What some researchers observed was that these molecules had the distinction of being a little more stable in the Douro organisms (animal model or cell lines) as well as positive effects on tumor inhibition.”

    Propolis.The Natural Antibiotic. Stay Healthy!

    Propolis May Help Counter Toxic Effect of Cancer Treatment

    Apitherapy News   Posted by Editor   October 9, 2014

    Context: Cyclophosphamide (CTX) is a common anticancer agent used for the treatment of several malignancies. However, upon treatment, it induces severe toxicity due to its oxidative stress capability. Propolis, a natural product collected by honey bees, has shown several biological activities, such as free radical scavenging and antioxidant agent.

    Objective: This study elucidates the protective effects of propolis against CTX-induced changes in mice.

    Read more... http://apitherapy.blogspot.com/2014/10/propolis-may-help-counter-toxic-effect.html

    Propolis In Dentistry and Oral Cancer Management

    Apitherapy News    July 12, 2014

    N Am J Med Sci, 2014 Jun;6(6):250-9
    Propolis, known as bee glue, is a wax-cum-resin substance, which is created out of a mix of buds from some trees with the substance secreted from the bee's glands. Its diverse chemical content is responsible for many valuable properties. Multiple applications of propolis have been studied and described in detail for centuries. However, currently available information on propolis is scarce. A literature search in the PubMed database was performed for English language articles, using the search terms propolis, oral health, dentistry, and oral cancer; no restrictions were used for publication dates. The aim of the article was to review propolis and its applications in dentistry including oral cancer…

    Oral cancer is a public health problem. The use of natural substances such as propolis aims to search for chemoprevention with fewer side effects. Desirable effects of propolis on the treatment of oral cancer are regression of tumors by stimulating multicellular immunity, prevention of metastasis, speeding up apoptosis of cancer cells, mitosis-suppressing effect, anti-angiogenesis effect, immunomodulatory effect, and antioxidant effect. Propolis maintains high circulating levels of chemotherapeutic drugs such as 5-FU and MMC, thus reducing the dose of these drugs. When concurrently administered with propolis, the dose and side effects of these chemotherapeutic drugs are reduced; the cytopenia resulting from these drugs is ameliorated by administration of propolis via increasing WBC and RBC counts in peripheral blood. Propolis also has radioprotective effect. Flavonoid quercetin in propolis potentiates the growth-inhibitory activity on tumors. 

    Read at and Reference/Study/Results : http://apitherapy.blogspot.com/

    Propolis Component Boosts Prostate Cancer Cell Deaths

    Authors: Ewelina Szliszka, Grzegorz Zydowicz, Elzbieta Mizgala, Wojciech Krol (Apitherapy News & International Journal of Oncology) July 4, 2012

    Artepillin C (3,5-diprenyl-4-hydroxycinnamic acid) Sensitizes LNCaP Prostate Cancer Cells to TRAIL-Induced Apoptosis

    Int J Oncol, 2012 Jun 25

    Abstract:

    Naturally occurring phenolic compounds have been shown to sensitize prostate cancer cells to tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis. TRAIL is a potent stimulator of apoptosis in cancer cells and an important immune effector molecule in the surveillance and elimination of developing tumours. However, many cancer cells are resistant to TRAIL-mediated death. In this study, we aimed to determine the mechanisms by which TRAIL resistance can be overcome in prostate cancer cells by...

    Read more...

    New Methods to Reduce Allergens in Propolis

    Apitherapy News (June 15, 2012)

    Biotransformation Strategy to Reduce Allergens in Propolis Appl. Environ. Microbiol, July 2012 vol. 78 no. 13 4654-4658Propolis (bee glue) is a resinous, sticky, dark-colored material produced by honeybees. Propolis today, due to its medicinal properties, is increasingly popular and is extensively used in food, beverages, and cosmetic products.Besides its numerous positive properties, propolis may also have adverse effects, such as, principally, allergic eczematous contact dermatitis in apiarists and in consumers with an allergic predisposition. Read more...

    Increased Resin Collection After Parasite Challenge

    Michael D. Simone-Finstrom, North Carolina State University; Marla Spivak, University of Minnesota

    Increased resin collection after parasite challenge: a case of self-medication in honey bees?

    Research from North Carolina State University shows that honey bees “self-medicate” when their colony is infected with a harmful fungus, bringing in increased amounts of antifungal plant resins to ward off the pathogen.

    “The colony is willing to expend the energy and effort of its worker bees to collect these resins,” says Dr. Michael Simone-Finstrom, a postdoctoral research scholar in NC State’s Department of Entomology and lead author of a paper describing the research. “So, clearly this behavior has evolved because the benefit to the colony exceeds the cost.”

    Wild honey bees normally line their hives with propolis, a mixture of plant resins and wax that has antifungal and antibacterial properties. Domesticated honey bees also use propolis, to fill in cracks in their hives. However, researchers found that, when faced with a fungal threat, bees bring in significantly more propolis – 45 percent more, on average. The bees also physically removed infected larvae that had been parasitized by the fungus and were being used to create fungal spores.

    Researchers know propolis is an effective antifungal agent because they lined some hives with a propolis extract and found that the extract significantly reduced the rate of infection.

    And apparently bees can sometimes distinguish harmful fungi from harmless ones, since colonies did not bring in increased amounts of propolis when infected with harmless fungal species. Instead, the colonies relied on physically removing the spores.

    However, the self-medicating behavior does have limits. Honey bee colonies infected with pathogenic bacteria did not bring in significantly more propolis – despite the fact that the propolis also has antibacterial properties. “There was a slight increase, but it was not statistically significant,” Simone-Finstrom says. “That is something we plan to follow up on.”

    There may be a lesson here for domestic beekeepers. “Historically, U.S. beekeepers preferred colonies that used less of this resin, because it is sticky and can be difficult to work with,” Simone-Finstrom says. “Now we know that this is a characteristic worth promoting, because it seems to offer the bees some natural defense.”

    The paper, “Increased resin collection after parasite challenge: a case of self-medication in honey bees?,” was co-authored by Dr. Marla Spivak of the University of Minnesota and published March 29 in PLoS ONE. The research was funded by the National Science Foundation.

    Abstract: The constant pressure posed by parasites has caused species throughout the animal kingdom to evolve suites of mechanisms to resist infection. Individual barriers and physiological defenses are considered the main barriers against parasites in invertebrate species. However, behavioral traits and other non-immunological defenses can also effectively reduce parasite transmission and infection intensity. In social insects, behaviors that reduce colony-level parasite loads are termed “social immunity.” One example of a behavioral defense is resin collection. Honey bees forage for plant-produced resins and incorporate them into their nest architecture. This use of resins can reduce chronic elevation of an individual bee’s immune response. Since high activation of individual immunity can impose colony-level fitness costs, collection of resins may benefit both the individual and colony fitness. However the use of resins as a more direct defense against pathogens is unclear. Here we present evidence that honey bee colonies may self medicate with plant resins in response to a fungal infection. Self-medication is generally defined as an individual responding to infection by ingesting or harvesting non-nutritive compounds or plant materials. Our results show that colonies increase resin foraging rates after a challenge with a fungal parasite (Ascophaera apis: chalkbrood or CB). Additionally, colonies experimentally enriched with resin had decreased infection intensities of this fungal parasite. If considered self-medication, this is a particularly unique example because it operates at the colony level. Most instances of self-medication involve pharmacophagy, whereby individuals change their diet in response to direct infection with a parasite. In this case with honey bees, resins are not ingested but used within the hive by adult bees exposed to fungal spores. Thus the colony, as the unit of selection, may be responding to infection through self-medication by increasing the number of individuals that forage for resin. http://home.ezezine.com/1636/1636-2012.03.30.14.45.archive.html

    (The above brought to you by CATCH THE BUZZ (Kim Flottum) Bee Culture, The Magazine of American Beekeeping, published by A.I. Root Company.)