Has Chromatography Exposed "Deceptive" Plants?

Chromatography Today    December 2, 2016

A researcher at the University of Bayreuth in Germany has found a fascinating example of plants being deceptive to ensure that they are pollinated — and it is thanks to the help of gas chromatography with electroantennographic (GC-EAD) and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). So, let’s look at the deceptive plants and find out how chromatography helped.

Pollination and insects Pollination is simply the transfer of pollen from the male anther to the female stigma — an essential process in the fertilization of many plants. Some plants are self-pollinating and don’t need a bee or other insect to transfer the pollen. But many plants do need a little help from nature in the form of a pollinator. The most widely known pollinators are bees, and they are also one of the most important pollinators for plants that we use and eat — which is why the decimation of bee colonies is causing so much concern.

To ensure their survival, some plants actively attract pollinators through various methods, not just relying on their attractiveness to the pollinator. For example, some plants send out chemical signals when they need to be pollinated — attracting the right insects at the right time of year. But some plants are not content to let nature take its course and actively practice the dark art of deception to make sure of their survival.

Bees and carnivorous flies

Annemarie Heiduk, a researcher at the University of Bayreuth, has been investigating one plant — Ceropegia sandersonii, Sanderson’s parachute flower — that lures and traps carnivorous flies to make sure it gets pollinated. The flies it lures are Desmometopa — a fly that feeds on honeybees.

The flies don’t hunt the honeybees themselves, — no, they wait for spiders and other insects to kill the honeybees. The flies can detect chemical signals — alarm pheromones that the bees give off as they are attacked. They can then join in the party and feast on the honeybees along with the original predators.
The flies are known as kleptoparasites — animals that steal food from the predators.

Deception and lies with Ceropegia sandersonii

To attract the flies, the parachute flowers release a fragrance that mimics the scent of dying honeybees. Irresistible to the flies, which are attracted to the flower but they find no bees — instead, the flies find themselves imprisoned in the flowers. Because the flowers have nothing to offer the flies, no food or nectar, the flowers are known as ‘deceptive flowers’ and they trap the flies for 24 hours, coating them in pollen, before releasing them. The flies, now hungry, are attracted to other parachute flowers mimicking dying honeybees transferring the pollen and completing the pollination cycle.

Heiduk used GC-MS to analyse the scent of the pollinators and GC-EAD to analyse which scents the flies were attracted to. Gas chromatography is commonly used to analyse fragrances and other aroma samples as discussed in the article, Sample Preparation Options for Aroma Analysis.

See more at: http://www.chromatographytoday.com/news/preparative/33/breaking_news/has_chromatography_exposed_deceptive_plants/41126/#sthash.RzNHIAb0.dpuf

Bees Use a Variety of Senses and Memory of Previous Experiences to Forage for Pollen, Research Suggests

CATCH THE BUZZ-Bee Culture    By Elizabeth Nicholls    November 28, 2016

A honey bee foraging for pollen. Credit: Dr. Elizabeth NichollsBees use a variety of senses and memory of previous experiences when deciding where to forage for pollen, research by the University of Exeter suggests.

The researchers believe pollen-collecting bees do not base their foraging decisions on taste alone, but instead make an “overall sensory assessment” of their experience at a particular flower.

Bees typically do not eat pollen when they collect it from flowers, but carry it back to the nest via special “sacs” on their legs or hairs on their body.

This makes it difficult to understand how bees judge whether the pollen a flower produces is nutritious enough for their young.

Indeed, researchers have been puzzled for a long time as to what exactly bees look for when they collect pollen from flowers.

Co-author Dr Natalie Hempel de Ibarra, expert in insect neuroethology at Exeter’s Center for Research in Animal Behavior, said: “It seems that bees don’t just respond to a single nutritional compound in pollen, such as crude protein content, but to a range of sensory cues in pollen and flowers.

“They also form memories for locations and types of flowers that they have visited which affect their foraging decisions.

“We need more research that considers the behavior and neurobiology of bees to understand when and why they prefer some plants and some pollen over others.

“A breakthrough in this area could advance our efforts in both biodiversity conservation and crop production.”

The review, published in the journal Functional Ecology, examines existing evidence on how bees use their senses, previous experience and — in the case of social bees — feedback from the nest to decide where to gather pollen.

First author Dr Elizabeth Nicholls, a former PhD student at the University of Exeter and now a Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the University of Sussex, said: “Our review is unique in considering pollen foraging from an individual bee’s perspective, asking which senses bees use to decide which flowers are worth visiting.

“In our review we suggest that although bees may taste pollen during collection and use this nutritional information to guide their choices, they are also likely to pay attention to the strong odor and visual appearance of both pollen and the flower itself.

“For bees that live together in colonies, information passed on from the other bees in the nest, either via chemical cues or even special ‘dances’, may also be important in influencing their pollen-collecting behavior.”

The University of Exeter is a major hub for bee and pollination research and currently advertising several postgraduate research projects.


The American Apitherapy Society

The American Apitherapy Society offers and shares information to educate those of you who seek an alternative form of health care referred to as Apitherapy.  Apitherapy encompasses the use of bee hive products including honey, pollen, propolis, royal jelly and bee venom.  Apitherapy is used to treat many illnesses and to alleviate pain from injuries both chronic and acute.  We are an organization reaching beyond traditional Western medicine helping others to help themselves in attaining better health through a holistic approach in harmony with the bee hive, a true gift of nature.



Pesticides Found in Most Pollen Collected from Foraging Bees in Massachusetts

ABJ Extra    July 24, 2015

Boston, MA -- More than 70% of pollen and honey samples collected from foraging bees in Massachusetts contain at least one neonicotinoid, a class of pesticide that has been implicated in Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), in which adult bees abandon their hives during winter, according to a new study from Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health.

The study will be published online July 23, 2015 in the Journal of Environmental Chemistry.

"Data from this study clearly demonstrated the ubiquity of neonicotinoids in pollen and honey samples that bees are exposed to during the seasons when they are actively foraging across Massachusetts. Levels of neonicotinoids that we found in this study fall into ranges that could lead to detrimental health effects in bees, including CCD," said Chensheng (Alex) Lu, associate professor of environmental exposure biology in the Department of Environmental Health at Harvard Chan School and lead author of the study.

Since 2006, there have been significant losses of honey bee colonies. Scientists, policymakers, farmers, and beekeepers are concerned with this problem because bees are prime pollinators of roughly one-third of all crops worldwide.

Previous studies analyzed either stored pollen collected from hives or pollen samples collected from bees at a single point in time. In this study, the Harvard Chan School researchers looked at pollen samples collected over time--during spring and summer months when bees forage--from the same set of hives across Massachusetts. Collecting pollen samples in this way enabled the researchers to determine variations in the levels of eight neonicotinoids and to identify high-risk locations or months for neonicotinoid exposure for bees. To do so, the researchers worked with 62 Massachusetts beekeepers who volunteered to collect monthly samples of pollen and honey from foraging bees, from April through August 2013, using pollen traps on the landings of beehives. The beekeepers then sent the samples to the researchers.

The researchers analyzed 219 pollen and 53 honey samples from 62 hives, from 10 out of 14 counties in Massachusetts. They found neonicotinoids in pollen and honey for each month collected, in each location--suggesting that bees are at risk of neonicotinoid exposure any time they are foraging anywhere in Massachusetts.

The most commonly detected neonicotinoid was imidacloprid, followed by dinotefuran. Particularly high concentrations of neonicotinoids were found in Worcester County in April, in Hampshire County in May, in Suffolk County in July, and in Essex County in June, suggesting that, in these counties, certain months pose significant risks to bees.

The new findings suggest that neonicotinoids are being used throughout Massachusetts. Not only do these pesticides pose a significant risk for the survival of honey bees, but they also may pose health risks for people inhaling neonicotinoid-contaminated pollen, Lu said. "The data presented in this study should serve as a basis for public policy that aims to reduce neonicotinoid exposure," he said.

Read at: http://goo.gl/ae562o

Pollen Deprived Bees Don't Make Good Dancers

The New York Times   By Sindya N. Bhanoo   April 20, 2015

Worker bees without access to adequate pollen early in life turn out to be poor foragers, and dancers, as adults.

The bees’ so-called waggle dance, a figure-eight movement, is used to tell other members of the colony how far and in what direction to fly to find flowers. If the pollen-deprived bees went out to forage, they often did not return, said Heather Mattila, a biologist at Wellesley College..

Dr. Mattila and Hailey Scofield, an undergraduate student, raised one group of bees with limited access to pollen and another with adequate pollen. They combined the bees in one hive and observed them. Their study was published this month in PLOS One.

“Pollen-stressed workers were less likely to waggle dance, and if they danced, the information they conveyed was less precise,” Dr. Mattila said.

Outside the lab, bees encounter pollen stress regularly. At the beginning of spring, for instance, cold weather makes it difficult to search for pollen, and flowers have not fully bloomed.

Poor foraging and waggle dancing could add to the decline in honeybees, and threaten crops like apples and almonds that depend on the insects for pollination, Dr. Mattila said.

Read at: http://goo.gl/g1UB7r


American Apitherapy Society

From the American Apitherapy Society: The AAS is on the VERGE of officially ANNOUNCING the location & dates of the 2015 Charles Mraz Apitherapy Course & Conference CMACC in our February Newsletter! 
SIGN UP for our FREE monthly newsletter at www.apitherapy.org and look for clues on our Facebook page.

APITHERAPY is the medicinal use of beehive products made by honeybees including raw honey, pollen, propolis, royal jelly, bee venom, beeswax, drone larvae.

Visit AAS: http://www.apitherapy.org/

Pollen DNA Reveals Honey Bee Foraging Habits

Entomology Today   January 13, 2015

Exactly what plants do honey bees visit on their daily forages for food? A research team from Ohio State University has found that the answer lies in the pollen collected by the bees, and they have developed a new method that utilizes DNA metabarcoding to analyze pollen to determine its origin. Their new protocol has been published in the journal Applications in Plant Sciences.

“Understanding honey bees’ pollen preferences can provide insights to what a colony needs and help improve the quality of foraging habitats,” said Dr. Chia-Hua Lin, one of the co-authors.

Their work should provide other researchers with a foundation for uncovering information from pollen DNA, and it will also enable bees to do some environmental science fieldwork.

“A honey bee colony is like an army of research assistants — thousands of enthusiastic, flying research assistants that work all day and trespass with impunity,” said Doug Sponsler, another co-author. “While foraging each day, bees are unknowingly monitoring plants in their surrounding landscapes, some hard to reach by researchers, and collecting valuable data in the form of pollen. They can also serve as bioindicators of pollution and pesticides.”

According to his colleague and co-author Rodney Richardson, traditional methods of analyzing pollen data under the microscope suffer from being difficult, slow, and often imprecise.

“There’s a huge bottleneck in the workflow because ultimately every sample needs the undivided attention of one expert behind a microscope,” Richardson said.

DNA metabarcoding is a promising alternative because it allows rapid identification of the genera or even species present in a mass DNA sample of multiple organisms. The technology has been gaining popularity across many fields of biology, and Richardson and colleagues are among the first to apply it to pollen analysis.

“It’s a first attempt that lets other researchers know what to expect, using the ITS2 marker in particular,” said Richardson.

Metabarcoding resulted in higher sensitivity and resolution, and identified twice as many plant families than microscopic analysis of the same pollen samples. However, it lacks the ability to quantitatively assess the relative proportions of each pollen type, something that will need to be addressed in future advancements.

For now, a combination of traditional microscopic analysis with DNA metabarcoding offers a deeper look into bee foraging behavior than either method alone. For scientists, this is only the beginning of uncovering the secret life of bees. For the bees, it is only the beginning of their work as research assistants.

Read & Comments at: http://entomologytoday.org/2015/01/13/pollen-dna-reveals-honey-bee-foraging-habits/

Read more at: Application of ITS2 Metabarcoding to Determine the Provenance of Pollen Collected by Honey Bees in an Agroecosystem

Bee Pollen Diet

By Dr. Patrick Fratellone, MD RH (AHG) FIM
FACC, check out his blog at http://www.fratellonemedical.com/blog/

I always knew it was a power house of
protein, amino acids, vitamins, and minerals.
There are great books on Honey, Propolis,
Pollen and Royal Jelly.

More Problems for Bees; We've Wiped Out Their Favorite Plants

Arstechnica.com   By Diana Gitig   November 25, 2014 

Pollen samples from old museum specimens indicate bees' favorite meals are gone.

That orange blob on the bees legs is all pollen, saved for a future meal. (Credit: CA Dept of Food & Ag)Bees are disappearing—that much is certain. What's unclear is why. Pathogens and pesticides have been posited as potential causes, as has the loss of bees' preferred floral resources. This last reason has intuitive appeal: wildflowers are disappearing because of agriculture, and bees rely on the pollen and nectar in flowers, so the loss of flowers should be causing the loss of bees.

But a demonstration of this seemingly simple idea has been hard to come by. Different species of bees rely on different plants—the bee species that are disappearing have never been analyzed in terms of taste for the plants that are disappearing to see if they match up. And, once the bees or plants are gone...

Read more... http://arstechnica.com/science/2014/11/more-problems-for-bees-weve-wiped-out-their-favorite-plants/#p3

Related article:  http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v516/n7529/full/516010a.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20141204#access

Bee Products Honey, Propolis, Pollen May Help Treat Depression

Apitherapy News   Posted by Editor October 10, 2014

Total monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition by chestnut honey, pollen and propolis

Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry, October 2014, Vol. 29, No. 5 , Pages 690-694Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors are generally used in the treatment of depressive disorders and some neurodegenerative illnesses, such as Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease.The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate the MAO [MAO (E.C.] inhibiting effect of various apitherapeutic products, such as chestnut honey, pollen and propolis...

Continue reading... http://apitherapy.blogspot.com/2014/10/bee-products-honey-propolis-pollen-may.html

Why Aren't We Growing More Willows as an Abundant Source of Pollen for Bees?

Crops for Energy  By Kevin Lindegaard    September 12, 2014

Willows are sometimes called the Easter Tree as they come into bloom early in spring. Male varieties can be particularly showy and produce prolific displays of golden catkins. They aren’t just nice to look at – they provide a lifeline to foraging bees by providing an abundant source of pollen and nectar when there aren’t many alternatives. This essential ecosystem service has so far been under exploited in commercial food production but could be a major fringe benefit of growing short rotation coppice (SRC) willow as an energy crop.

The valuable contribution that different willow species provide is widely recognised by bee keepers. Frank Greenaway a bee keeper in Carmarthenshire has planted willows to help his bees through the late winter lean period. He explained why a plentiful supply of early pollen is so important:

“The adult bees feed a mixture of pollen and nectar to their grubs. It is the protein content of the pollen that they need to grow from egg to adult bee, nectar only gives them energy.   Adult bees eat a lot of nectar to enable them to keep warm and fly but actually eat very little pollen as all their growing is complete.   When a colony gets going in the spring the queen starts laying eggs like mad and the demand is for pollen to feed the grubs – this can be in February or even earlier in mild years – it is usually the availability of fresh pollen (and the odd day above 12 degrees C to allow them to collect it) that is the controlling factor. A healthy hive normally has some reserves of honey even at the end of winter but they never seem to have enough pollen”.

In the face of the decline in pollinator populations (there has been a 54% fall in honeybee hive numbers in England between 1985 and 2005), it’s high time that this potential was recognised and utilised by the wider farming and horticulture industries. Early pollen derived protein from willow could be key to building up insect population numbers and influence the level of pollination in both food crops and wild plant populations later in the season.   Currently around 20% of UK cropland is covered by insect pollinated crops (such as apples, plums, pears and oilseed rape) and the value of pollination to UK agriculture has been estimated at £400 million.

It’s possible that SRC willow could be planted in conjunction with food crops and provide essential pollination services. A quick trawl of the web indicates that the source is plentiful and quality of protein in the pollen is good – very good. Various online sources suggest that willows can yield 1,500 pounds of pollen per acre (1.68 tonnes per hectare). This sounds like an awful lot but is not as fanciful as you might imagine. A mature stand of SRC may have around 400 or more catkins per stool and based on a stocking rate of 15,000 plants per hectare that’s 6 million catkins. Each of these catkins would have to produce just 0.28 grams of pollen. To put that into context that’s a lot less than a tenth of a teaspoon of sugar.

A typical honey bee colony consisting of around 20,000 bees collects around 57 kg of pollen per year.  If we assume a pollen yield from male SRC willow catkins of 1.68 tonnes/year, a 1 hectare plantation could potentially provide enough pollen to support almost 30 colonies, that’s 600,000 honey bees!

The quality of the protein seems to vary between species. The American pussy willow (Salix discolor) has a crude protein content of 21.9% whilst the crack willow (Salix fragilis) is 14.8 – 15.1%. Anything above 20% is considered a good pollen source. Research suggests that bumblebees reared on high quality pollen result in larger workers that are more efficient at nectar collection, can fly in cooler temperatures, can collect from deeper flowers and may be less prone to predation.


As there are around 350 species of willows worldwide and countless hybrid combinations the odds of being able to actively select for increased pollen yield and quality are high. The UK SRC willow breeding programme has created crosses involving around 55 species of Salix, many of which have a large displays of male catkins. Until now the selection has been based on biomass yield rather than gender, pollen yield and crude protein content. As a result most of the varieties available are females that flower in Jan-Feb. However, the selection criteria could be expanded to look for male genotypes that provide a wealth of pollen at crucial times of the year – a few weeks in advance of key food crops grown in the UK.

The table below shows the time when different willow species and cultivars come into flower in the UK. Many of these varieties have already been used in breeding and have produced male genotypes with abundant pollen.

Read at... http://www.crops4energy.co.uk/src-willows-abundant-source-pollen-bees/

Why Honey Bees Forage in California Poppies

Bug Squad - Happenings in the Insect World   By Kathy Keatley Garvey    3/18/14

When you see honey bees foraging on the California poppy, the state flower, they're not there for the nectar.

They're there for the pollen.

"California poppies provide only pollen--no nectar," native pollinator specialist Robbin Thorp, emeritus professor of entomology at UC Davis, told the Pollinator Gardening Workshop last Saturday on the UC Davis campus. Thorp was one of the featured speakers at the event,...


Visit the Kathy Keatley Garvey Bug Squad blog at: http://ucanr.org/blogs/bugsquad/

GMO Soybean Pollen Threatens Mexican Honey Sales, Study Reports

PHYS.ORG     2/7/14

Mexico is the fourth largest honey producer and fifth largest honey exporter in the world. A Smithsonian researcher and colleagues helped rural farmers in Mexico to quantify the genetically modified organism (GMO) soybean pollen in honey samples rejected for sale in Germany. Their results will appear Feb. 7 in the online journal, Scientific Reports.

Read more... http://phys.org/news/2014-02-gmo-soybean-pollen-threatens-mexican.html

About that Pollen...

Bug Squad - Happenings in the Insect World   By Kathy Keatley Garvey   1/31/14

Why is that in a honey bee colony, workers can carry pollen but not the queen?

Well, scientists from Michigan State University and Wayne State University have discovered the answer.

They've isolated the gene that's responsible for leg and wing development, according to a news brief in Entomology Todaypublished by the Entomological Society of...


Visit the Kathy Keatley Garvey Bug Squad blog at: http://ucanr.org/blogs/bugsquad/

European Parliament Votes Pollen is Part of Honey

 PHYS.ORG   1/15/14

After years of wrangling and a ruling by the EU's top court, the European Parliament agreed Wednesday that pollen is a constituent of honey and not an added ingredient.

The distinction may seem arcane but it has important implications for the industry since it determines how honey jars are labelled when it comes to levels of  from genetically modified plants.

Purity is a key selling point for honey and a label warning consumers it contained GMO pollen might deter buyers anxious to avoid foods that have been genetically altered.

Lawmakers voted 430 for and 224 against to define "pollen as a natural constituent of honey, rather than an ingredient...

Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2014-01-european-parliament-votes-pollen-honey.html#jCp






Pollen Power

Bug Squad - Happenings in the Insect World   By Kathy Keatley Garvey  5/27/13

Bees carry pollen in their pollen baskets, but that's not the only place.

"Pollen grains adhere to the bee's hairs, influenced by opposite electrical charges," writes Norman Gary, emeritus professor of entomology at the University of California, Davis, in his popular book, Honey Bee Hobbyist: The Care and Keeping of Bees.

Bees comb and brush the...



Visit the Kathy Keatley Garvey Bug Squad blog at: http://ucanr.org/blogs/bugsquad/
Visit the Kathy Keatley Garvey website at: http://kathygarvey.com/

Honey Bee Medicine & the Apothecary

Burdock & Rose   By Lisa Rose Starner  5/3/13

Honey Bees are the Earth’s first and best herbalists. They flit from flower to flower; pollinating and as they do so they collect the plant’s magic pollen dust which then gets imbibed into deliciously healing honey. Bees also collect resin from trees to create propolis, which repairs cracks in their hives and is also a useful human medicine.

Honey bees are the magic link to our food system and are the proverbial canary in the cave when we think about health and balance in our ecosystems...


Where the Yellow Pollen Came From

Bug Squad - Happenings in the Insect World   By Kathy Keatley Garvey 2/18/13

Beekeepers who watch their bees return to their hives with pollen loads like to guess the origin of the pollen. Red, yellow, blue, white...

It's not unlike "What Color Is Your Parachute?" the job-hunting guide by Richard N. Bolles.

Sunday the bees foraging in flowering quince collected yellow pollen--heavy loads of pollen. They struggled with the weight and then headed home to help feed their colonies.  

Blue skies,...



Visit the Kathy Keatley Garvey Bug Squad blog at: http://ucanr.org/blogs/bugsquad/
Visit the Kathy Keatley Garvey website at: http://kathygarvey.com/

The Year 2040: Double the Pollen, Bees Happy, But Double the Allergy Suffering?

(The following is brought to us by the American Bee Journal.) 11/8/12


New study shows pollen counts will more than double in 28 years
ANAHEIM, CA. (November 9, 2012) – With this year's unseasonably warm temperatures and extended seasons, many have coined 2012 as being the worst for allergies. But if you thought your symptoms were worse than ever, just wait until the year 2040.

According to a study being presented by allergist Leonard Bielory, M.D., at the Annual Scientific Meeting of the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (ACAAI), pollen counts are expected to more than double by 2040.

"Climate changes will increase pollen production considerably in the near future in different parts of the country," said Dr. Bielory, ACAAI board member and fellow. "Economic growth, global environment sustainability, temperature and human-induced changes, such as increased levels of carbon dioxide, are all responsible for the influx that will continue to be seen."
In the year 2000, pollen counts averaged 8,455. Fast forward to 2040, and these counts are anticipated to reach 21,735. Researchers predict counts in 20-year increments up to the year 2100, and are incorporating various climatic factors in their models including weather patterns, changes in precipitation and temperature. The study, taking place at Rutgers University in New Brunswick, N.J., is ongoing to analyze various allergenic plants being grown in climate chambers mimicking future conditions.

While pollen counts will progressively increase over the years, the study also found the sneezing season will begin earlier every year.

"In 2000, annual pollen production began on April 14, and peaked on May 1," said Dr. Bielory. "Pollen levels are predicted to peak earlier on April 8, 2040. If allergy sufferers begin long-term treatment such as immunotherapy (allergy shots) now, they will have relief long before 2040 becomes a reality."

An earlier report by the same researchers demonstrated an increase in ragweed pollen in a section of the country, from Texas to the Canadian border, over the past 25 years. This was associated with an increase of ragweed pollen by two to three weeks as one moves north.

ACAAI allergists recommend allergy sufferers begin treating their symptoms with over-the-counter or prescribed medications two weeks before symptoms usually start. While there isn't a cure for allergies, immunotherapy is the only treatment that can prevent disease progression. It can also result in health care savings of 41 percent.
For allergy sufferers looking to combat seasonal symptoms, ACAAI suggests:
  • Know your triggers. You may think you know that pollen is causing your suffering, but other substances may be involved as well. More than two-thirds of seasonal allergy sufferers actually have year-round symptoms. An allergist can help you find the source of your suffering and treat more than just symptoms.
  • Work with your allergist to devise strategies to avoid your triggers, such as:
  • Monitor pollen and mold counts — most media report this information during allergy seasons.
  • Keep windows and doors shut at home, and in your car during allergy season.
  • Stay inside during mid-day and afternoon hours when pollen counts are highest.
  • Take a shower, wash hair and change clothing after being outdoors working or playing.
  • Wear a mask when doing outdoor chores like mowing the lawn. An allergist can help you find the type of mask that works best.