2019 California Spring Update

Bee Informed.jpg

Bee Informed Partnership Post by Rob Snyder June 12, 2019




Many California beekeepers reported that the start of this year was the worst in 20+ years. Several factors contributed to this year’s issues, starting with the numerous fires last year causing nearly 3 months of smoke in the area.

A beekeepers yard in September showing smoke from fires in Northern California 2018.

A beekeepers yard in September showing smoke from fires in Northern California 2018.

Petal Fall in 2019 in almonds after heavy rain.

Petal Fall in 2019 in almonds after heavy rain.

Once the days got longer, queens started laying but the temperatures dropped again and egg laying stopped once more resulting in smaller colonies after almonds. In fact, most colonies were 2-3 weeks or even a month behind, which delayed the start of queen production. Many producers had to source bulk bees from beekeepers further south to begin starters, builders and nucs.

Italian Queen selected for hygienic testing.

Italian Queen selected for hygienic testing.

Carniolan Queen selected for hygienic testing in 2019.

Carniolan Queen selected for hygienic testing in 2019.

Once queen producers started generating nucs, the weather conditions were still challenging enough that the windows of opportunities for queens to mate were narrow at best. However, many queen producers found the first round of catching queens resulted in better than expected mating percentages, allowing them to somewhat catch up on orders and start replacing their own queens. Around this time beekeepers were treating with terramycin to combat European foulbrood (EFB). Some beekeepers believe as I do, that fungicides play a roll in colonies being more susceptible to brood diseases especially EFB. I do think that some of the EFB outbreaks we see are due to the way commercial beekeepers and queen producers manipulate colonies to shake bulk bees.

Early EFB symptoms, orange arrows indicate larvae I would select for testing, red arrows indicate old larvae I would not test

Early EFB symptoms, orange arrows indicate larvae I would select for testing, red arrows indicate old larvae I would not test

If you are seeing this or lots of Deformed Wing Virus (DWV) it will be really hard to nurse colonies back to health. This is what happens if you neglect to treat or manipulate colonies to impact mite levels. Red arrows point to varroa mite in or on open brood.

If you are seeing this or lots of Deformed Wing Virus (DWV) it will be really hard to nurse colonies back to health. This is what happens if you neglect to treat or manipulate colonies to impact mite levels. Red arrows point to varroa mite in or on open brood.

Currently queen producers are re-queening and treating their colonies before shipping off to summer honey and pollination locations. The late spring has provided more rain than the past 8 years and many beekeepers say that rain in May increases the star thistle crop. We are hopeful this year will be a great star thistle honey crop, helping to restore lost colonies and recover some of the income lost due to the late start on queen production.

https://beeinformed.org/2019/06/12/2019-california-spring-update/

Wimps or Warriors? Honey Bee Larvae Absorb the Social Culture of the Hive, Study Finds

 Science Daily   Source: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign    October 29, 2015

Even as larvae, honey bees are tuned in to the social culture of the hive, becoming more or less aggressive depending on who raises them. The researchers don't yet know how the social information is being transmitted to the larvae. Credit: © gertrudda / Fotolia

Even as larvae, honey bees are tuned in to the social culture of the hive, becoming more or less aggressive depending on who raises them, researchers report in the journal Scientific Reports.

"We are interested in the general issue of how social information gets under the skin, and we decided to take a chance and ask about very young bees that are weeks away from adulthood," said University of Illinois entomology professor and Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology director Gene Robinson, who led the research with postdoctoral researcher Clare Rittschof and Pennsylvania State University professor Christina Grozinger.

"In a previous study, we cross-fostered adult bees from gentle colonies into more aggressive colonies and vice versa, and then we measured their brain gene expression," Robinson said. "We found that the bees had a complex pattern of gene expression, partly influenced by their own personal genetic identity and partly influenced by the environment of the colony they were living in. This led us to wonder when they become so sensitive to their social environment."

In the new study, the researchers again cross-fostered bees, but this time as larvae in order to manipulate the bees' early life experiences. The larvae were from a variety of queens, with sister larvae divided between high- and low-aggression colonies.

The larvae were removed from their foster hives and put into a neutral laboratory environment one day before they emerged as adults. The researchers tested their aggressiveness by exposing them to an intruder bee.

They were surprised to see that the bees retained the social information they had acquired as larvae. Those raised in aggressive colonies were 10 to 15 percent more aggressive than those raised in the gentler colonies.

"Even sisters born of the same queen but reared in different colonies differed in aggression, demonstrating the potency of this environmental effect," Robinson said.

The finding was surprising in part because bee larvae undergo metamorphosis, which radically changes the structure of their bodies and brains.

"It's hard to imagine what elements of the brain are influenced during the larval period that then survive the massive reorganization of the brain to bias behavior in this way," Robinson said.

The aggressive honey bees also had more robust immune responses than their gentler counterparts, the team found.

"We challenged them with pesticides and found that the aggressive bees were more resistant to pesticide," Grozinger said. "That's surprising considering what we know from vertebrates, where stress in early life leads to a diminishment of resilience. With the bees, we saw an increase in resilience."

This finding also suggests that the effects of the social environment on young bees could extend beyond brain function and behavior, Robinson said.

The researchers don't yet know how the social information is being transmitted to the larvae. They tested whether the bees differed in size, which would suggest that they had been fed differently, but found no size differences between aggressive and gentle bees.

"Adult honey bees are well known for their sociality, their communication skills and their ability to adjust their behavior in response to the needs of the hive," Rittschof said.

"In mammals, including humans, the effects of early life social interactions often persist throughout adulthood despite additional social experiences," she said. "A similar pattern in honey bees has broad implications for our understanding of social behavior within the hive and in comparison with other species." 

Tiny Parasite May Contribute to Declines in Honey Bee Colonies by Infecting Larvae

UC San Diego News Center   By Kim McDonald May 27, 2015

Biologists at UC San Diego have discovered that a tiny single-celled parasite may have a greater-than expected impact on honey bee colonies, which have been undergoing mysterious declines worldwide for the past decade.

In this week’s issue of the journal PLOS ONE, the scientists report that a microsporidian called Nosema ceranae, which has been known to infect adult Asiatic and European honey bees, can also infect honeybee larvae. They also discovered that honey bee larvae...

Read more... http://ucsdnews.ucsd.edu/pressrelease/tiny_parasite_may_contribute_to_declines_in_honey_bee_colonies_by_infecting

Newly Named Bacteria Help Honey Bee Larvae Thrive

PHYS.org   By Kim Kaplan  May 7, 2015

ARS technician Lucy Snyder selects bee larvae from honeycombs for in vitro rearing with probiotic bacteria. Credit: Vanessa Corby-Harris

Honey bees are under constant pressure from a whole host of stresses—diseases, poor nutrition, sublethal effects of pesticides, and many others. While researchers have been aware for a number of years of a community of bacteria in adult bees that may aid with some of these stresses, Agricultural Research Service researchers have identified the first bacteria that offer a benefit to bee larvae.

Molecular biologist Vanessa Corby-Harris and microbial ecologist Kirk E. Anderson at the ARS Carl Hayden Bee Research Center in Tucson, Arizona, have named a new species of bacteria—Parasaccharibacter apium. An Acetobacteraceae so far found only in honey bees and their hives, it appears to give honey  a significantly better chance of surviving to become pupae.

Honey bees have four major life stages: egg, larva, pupa, and adult.

Work on P. apium was initiated by an earlier post-doctoral researcher, Lana Vojvodic, who first discovered that these bacteria were abundant in larvae and also thrived in . Royal jelly is a protein-rich substance produced by adult bees in their hypopharyngeal glands, which resemble bunches of grapes on each side of the head. Nurse bees secrete and feed the jelly, which may contain P. apium, to young bee larvae. This jelly is the only food bee larvae eat during their first couple days. Then they are fed increasingly more honey, which has also been found to contain P. apium in most bee hives.

In lab experiments, ARS researchers tested honey bee larvae to see whether those fed royal jelly containing the Parasaccharibacter apium bacteria survived better those fed jelly that did not contain P. apium. Credit: Stephen Ausmus

In laboratory experiments designed by Corby-Harris, bee larvae were fed either P. apium-spiked jelly or sterile control jelly. The group fed P. apium had a 20-percent better survival rate in the first trial and a 40-percent better survival rate in the second trial.

"We haven't yet identified what P. apium does that confers this survival advantage to the larvae. It could involve the production of organic acids and lowering pH, which might have an antiseptic effect, or its presence might induce an immune response that could later work against larval pathogens," Corby-Harris says.

While P. apium found in honey bee hives is a distinct and new species from any previously identified, it has very close, naturally occurring relatives found in the nectar of many flowers, including cactus flowers, daisies, thistles, and apple blossoms.

Acetobacteraceae bacteria from flowers have not been tested yet to see if any of them might provide bee larvae with the same survival benefit, nor has there been a wider survey to determine the occurrence of P. apium-like species in economically important crops visited by bees.

A honey bee larva—the second life stage of honey bees in the egg, larva, pupa, adult sequence. Credit: Stephen Ausmus

"We have sequenced the genome of P. apium and begun to dissect the functional properties that distinguish flower-living Acetobacteraceaefrom those that have coevolved with the honey bee hive. Pinpointing these ecological differences will be key to understanding the function of P. apium in  hives," says Anderson.

With minimal sampling effort, P. apium was found in nearly every one of the healthy managed  examined by the researchers. A future study will explore the abundance of P. apium in weak or struggling managed bee colonies.

While the mechanism by which the bacteria benefit the larvae remains to be studied, the importance is clear enough that Corby-Harris and Anderson are already field testing its use as a management tool. "Along with P. apium, we are testing a number of bacteria that may benefit the pollination and honey-production industry," says Corby-Harris.

"More broadly, our research suggests that a community of bacteria that includes P. apium confers a generalized hygienic quality to the hive environment," says Anderson. "So we advise against unnecessary use of antibiotics by beekeepers, as it likely disrupts the variety and balance of microbial functions occurring throughout the hive, including the antiseptic properties of honey, pollen storage, larval health, and pathogen protection."

Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2015-05-newly-bacteria-honey-bee-larvae.html#jCp
 

Explore further: Age matters: Young larvae boost pollen foraging in honey bees