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Historical Honeybee Articles - Beekeeping History
Honey For Your New Years Celebration. 

According to the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke, honey speeds up alcohol metabolism, which means that it will help your body break down the alcohol more quickly. - Source: What Women Need to Know - 2005, page 14, By Marianne Legato, Carol Colman

Eating toast and honey after a long evening's drinking will help prevent the morning-after hangover headache. -Source: Better Homes and Gardens - 1977, page 61

Plants' Defense Against Insects is a Boquet

Michigan State University By Joy Landis December 13, 2018

plants and insects.jpg

Michigan State University scholar Andrea Glassmire and her colleagues have revealed how the mixture of chemical weapons deployed by plants keeps marauding insects off base better than a one-note defense. This insight goes beyond the ecological convention of studying a single chemical compound a plant is packing and offers new ways to approach agricultural pest management. The research was published in the latest Ecology Letters.

Glassmire, a post-doctoral scholar in MSU’s Department of Entomology and colleagues from the University of Nevada, Reno, found important relationships between plant defensive chemistry in the neotropical shrub, Piper kelleyi, and its associated insect pests.

Since plants cannot move, they defend against pests that eat them using a bouquet of chemical compounds. Ecology, however, has been biased towards studying effects of single compounds even though a feeding insect would encounter a blend of plant compounds. It turns out that the type of defense bouquet matters, whether bouquets have the same compounds or a blend of different compounds.

“If we can figure out the specific type of defense bouquet that is most effective at reducing insect feeding, then we can extrapolate these findings to agricultural systems to cut down on pesticide use,” said Glassmire.

Glassmire and colleagues manipulated plant chemical defenses in the Andes Mountains of Ecuador using a field experiment where plants were hung at different heights in the forest understory, exposing them to a range of light levels.

Their results suggest P. kelleyi plants consisting of defense bouquets having more kinds of defensive chemicals were more effective at reducing insect damage compared to defense bouquets having one kind of defensive chemical. The composition of defensive chemicals was dependent on the amount of light available. Subtle differences in light in the shaded forest understory induced changes in the defense bouquet. Remarkably, lower amounts of light increased the defense effectiveness of plants compared to higher amounts of light. Consequently, insect damage was reduced by up to 37% when P. kelleyi plants had bouquets of a blend of different compounds. Insects had difficulty consuming plants with different compound blends compared to plants with similar compound blends.

Understanding how plants’ chemical defenses vary across the geographic landscape could have important implications for agriculture. Glassmire and colleagues’ results suggest that feeding insects have difficulty adjusting to neighboring plants that are chemically different and that reduces damage. Agricultural systems comprised of a single crop monoculture lack differences in their defense bouquet because they are all the same.

“I’m excited to see how future applications of this knowledge could help farmers,” said Glassmire. “In the Wetzel lab, we are using a model crop system created by breeding commercial tomatoes with wild tomatoes to manipulate plant defense bouquets. This work will lead to new means of agricultural pest management in the future.”

The paper was co-authored by Casey Philbin, Lora Richards, Christopher Jeffrey and Lee Dyer of the University of Nevada, Reno, along with MSU’s Joshua Snook. The work was funded by the National Science Foundation, Earthwatch Institute, and a generous donation by the Hitchcock Fund for Chemical Ecology Research.

https://www.canr.msu.edu/news/plants-defense-against-insects-is-a-bouquet

Will Mushrooms Be Magic for Threatened Bees?

The New York Times / Opinion By Paul Stamets December 28, 2108

We might be able to save honeybees from viruses transmitted by invasive parasites without chemical treatment.

Credit: Lilli Carré

Credit: Lilli Carré

Sometime in the 1980s, microscopic mites that had been afflicting honeybees outside the United States found their way to Florida and Wisconsin and began wreaking havoc across the country. These parasites have invaded and decimated wild and domestic bee colonies. Along with other dangers facing bees, like pesticides and the loss of forage lands, the viruses these mites carry threaten the bees we rely on to pollinate many of the fruits, nuts and vegetables we eat.

This mite, Varroa destructor, injects a slew of viruses into bees, including one that causes shriveled wings, a primary factor in widespread colony collapse. Worse, these parasites have rapidly developed resistance to synthetic pesticides.

Beekeepers in the United States lost an estimated 40 percent of their colonies between April 2017 and April 2018. But we might be able to save honeybees at least from this parasitic scourge without chemical intervention. I along with scientists at Washington State University and the United States Department of Agriculture recently published in Scientific Reports, a journal from the publishers of Nature, a study that could inspire a paradigm shift in protecting bees.

Our research shows that extracts from the living mycelial tissue of common wood conk mushrooms known to have antiviral properties significantly reduced these viruses in honeybee colonies, in one field test by 45,000 times, compared to control colonies. In the field tests, we used extracts from two species of wood conks, the red reishi and the amadou. The famous “Iceman” found in a glacier in 1991 in the Alps carried amadouin a pouch 5,300 years ago. The red reishi has long been used as an immune-boosting tonic in Asia.

Our hypothesis — and that's all it is, we don't understand the mechanism behind the results — is that extracts of wood conk mushrooms strengthen immunity to viruses. More study is needed. At present, there have been no substances proved to reduce viruses in bees.

In the field study, a small amount of one of these mycelial extracts was added to the sugar water commonly fed to honeybees by beekeepers; wild bees could benefit too. I’m excited by the prospect of this research. I am a mycologist by trade — a mushroom expert — and I hope to create, with some colleagues, a nonprofit organization that could make available this mushroom extract and a bee feeder, similar to a hummingbird feeder, so that all of us can help save bees from our own backyards.

Our team is designing a bee feeder that we hope makes it possible to track bee visits and their pollen loads. Ideally, citizen scientists will upload their data to a portal to monitor progress. I estimate that millions of these feeders are needed to reverse the decline in bee populations.

Nature can repair itself with a little help from mycologists. Fungi outnumber plants by about 6 to 1; there are two million to four million fungal species, though only about 140,000 have been named so far. Our research underlines the need to save biodiversity for the discoveries to come.

These mycelial extracts might aid other species like pigs, birds and other animals. But we need more animal clinical studies to prove that this will work on a wider scale.

Mycology is an underfunded, understudied field with astonishing potential to save lives: ours and the bees.

Paul Stamets, a mycologist and owner of a gourmet mushroom company, is the author of “Mycelium Running: How Mushrooms Can Help Save the World.”

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/12/28/opinion/bees-threats-crop-loss-mushrooms.html

It's Time to Revisit the 13 Days of Christmas!

Eric Mussen, Extension emeritus (Photo by Kathy Keatley Garvey)

Eric Mussen, Extension emeritus (Photo by Kathy Keatley Garvey)

Bug Squad By Kathy Keatley Garvey December 16, 2018

It's time to revisit the "13 Bugs of Christmas!"

Back in 2010, two innovators with the UC Davis Department of Entomology (now the UC Davis Department of Entomology and Nematology) decided that "The 12 Days of Christmas" ought to be replaced with insects.

Remember that iconic song, "The 12 Days of Christmas?" Published in 1780, it begins with "On the first day of Christmas, my true love gave to me, a partridge in a pear tree?" Eleven more gifts follow: "2 turtle doves, 3 French hens, 4 calling birds, 5 gold rings, 6 geese-a-laying, 7 swans-a-swimming, 8 maids a'milking, 9 ladies dancing, 10 lords-a-leaping, and 11 pipers piping."

The two innovators--Extension apiculturist Eric Mussen (with the department from 1976-2014 and now emeritus) and yours truly (with the department since 2005)--decided that "5 gold rings" ought to be "five golden bees." The duo also figured that varroa mites, and other pests of California agriculture, should be spotlighted. Don't know what happened to the varroa mites! Hey, Eric, where did you put the varroa mites?

They penned the lyrics for the department's holiday gathering. Then Mussen, who sings with a Davis-based doo wopp group, led the department in song.

That was supposed to be the end of it. Not so. It went viral when U.S. News picked it up.

On the first day of Christmas, my true love gave to me, a psyllid in a pear tree.

On the second day of Christmas, my true love gave to me, 2 tortoises beetles and a psyllid in a pear tree

On the third day of Christmas, my true love gave to me, 3 French flies, 2 tortoise beetles and a psyllid in a pear tree

On the fourth day of Christmas, my true love gave to me, 4 calling cicadas, 3 French flies, 2 tortoise beetles and a psyllid in a pear tree

On the fifth day of Christmas, my true love gave to me 5 golden bees, 4 calling cicadas, 3 French flies, 2 tortoise beetles and a psyllid in a pear tree

On the sixth day of Christmas, my true love gave to me 6 lice a'laying, 5 golden bees, 4 calling cicadas, 3 French flies, 2 tortoise beetles and a psyllid in a pear tree

On the seventh day of Christmas, my true love gave to me 7 boatmen swimming, 6 lice a'laying, 5 golden bees, 4 calling cicadas, 3 French flies, 2 tortoise beetles and a psyllid in a pear tree

On the eighth day of Christmas, my true love gave to me 8 ants a'milking aphids, 7 boatmen swimming, 6 lice a'laying, 5 golden bees, 4 calling cicadas, 3 French flies, 2 tortoise beetles and a psyllid in a pear tree

On the ninth day of Christmas, my true love gave to me 9 mayflies dancing, 8 ants a'milking aphids, 7 boatmen swimming, 6 lice a'laying, 5 golden bees, 4 calling cicadas, 3 French flies, 2 tortoise beetles and a psyllid in a pear tree

On the tenth day of Christmas, my true love gave to me 10 locusts leaping, 9 mayflies dancing, 8 ants a'milking aphids, 7 boatmen swimming, 6 lice a'laying, 5 golden bees, 4 calling cicadas, 3 French flies, 2 tortoise beetles and a psyllid in a pear tree

On the 11th day of Christmas, my true love gave to me 11 queen bees piping, 10 locusts leaping, 9 mayflies dancing, 8 ants a'milking aphids, 7 boatmen swimming, 6 lice a'laying, 5 golden bees, 4 calling cicadas, 3 French flies, 2 tortoise beetles and a psyllid in a pear tree

On the 12th day of Christmas, my true love gave to me 12 deathwatch beetles drumming, 11 queen bees piping, 10 locusts leaping, 9 mayflies dancing, 8 ants a'milking aphids, 7 boatmen swimming, 6 lice a'laying, 5 golden bees, 4 calling cicadas, 3 French flies, 2 tortoise beetles and a psyllid in a pear tree

"On the 13th day of Christmas, Californians woke to see: 13 Kaphra beetles, 12 Diaprepes weevils, 11 citrus psyllids,
10 Tropilaelaps clareae, 9 melon fruit flies, 8 Aedes aegypti, 7 ash tree borers, 6 six spotted-wing Drosophila, 5 five gypsy moths, 4 Japanese beetles, 3 imported fire ants, 2 brown apple moths, and a medfly in a pear tree."

Mussen, although retired in 2014, keeps bee-sy. A co-founder of Western Apicultural Society (WAS), he completed his sixth term as president in 2017. WAS, which serves the educational needs of beekeepers from 13 states, plus parts of Canada, was founded in 1977-78 for “the benefit and enjoyment of all beekeepers in western North America."

Mussen also continues to answer bee questions from his office in Briggs Hall and recently updated the "13 Bugs of Christmas" lyrics with some more agricultural pests:

On the first day of Christmas, my true love gave to me, a psyllid in a pear tree.
One the second day of Christmas, my true love gave to me, two peach fruit flies
On the third day of Christmas, my true love gave to me, three false codling moths
On the fourth day of Christmas, my true love gave to me, four peach fruit flies
On the fifth day of Christmas, my true love gave to me, five gypsy moths
On the sixth day of Christmas, my true love gave to me, six white striped fruit flies
On the seventh day of Christmas, my true love gave to me, seven imported fire ants
On the eighth day of Christmas, my true love gave to me, eight longhorn beetles
On the ninth day of Christmas, my true love gave to me, nine melon fruit flies
On the 10th day of Christmas, my true love gave to me, ten brown apple moths
On the 11th day of Christmas, my true love gave to me, eleven citrus psyllids
On the 12th day of Christmas, my true love gave to me, twelve guava fruit flies.
On the 13th day of Christmas, my true love gave to me, thirteen Japanese beetles

You're welcome.

“On the fifth day of Christmas, my true love gave to me 5 golden bees.” This is one of them. (Photo by Kathy Keatley Garvey)

“On the fifth day of Christmas, my true love gave to me 5 golden bees.” This is one of them. (Photo by Kathy Keatley Garvey)

A Varroa mite on a honey bee—not something beekeepers want to see on their bees! (Photo by Kathy Keatley Garvey)

A Varroa mite on a honey bee—not something beekeepers want to see on their bees! (Photo by Kathy Keatley Garvey)

A queen bee with her retinue, “On the 11th day of Christmas my true love gave to me, 11 queen bees piping.” (Photo by Kathy Keatley Garvey)

A queen bee with her retinue, “On the 11th day of Christmas my true love gave to me, 11 queen bees piping.” (Photo by Kathy Keatley Garvey)

The Winter Solstice

the winter solstice.jpg

The Winter Solstice has been observed as an important date in beekeeping for over 2000 years.
Join us at: Historical Honeybee Articles - Beekeeping History
Read more to find out what the ancients have to say about winter and bees.

Aristotle says in Historia Animālium (History of Animals) Book IX
circa. 4 B.C.

"In healthy swarms the progeny of the bees only cease from reproduction for about forty days after the winter solstice."

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Pliny the Elder says in Naturalis Historia (Natural History)
circa. 77 - 79 AD

"From the winter solstice to the rising of Arcturus the bees are buried in sleep for sixty days, and live without any nourishment. Between the rising of Arcturus and the vernal equinox, they awake in the warmer climates, but even then they still keep within the hives, and have recourse to the provisions kept in reserve for this period."

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Virgil says in Georgics, Book IV
circa. 29 B.C.E

"Contracto frigore pigrae."
"With cold benumbed, inactive they remain."

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In the book 'The Universal Magazine of
Knowledge and Pleasure' circa. 1755

"The ancients mention a very extraordinary method of preserving the bees in their hives, which was by filling up a considerable part of the vacancy of every hive with the bodies of small birds, which had been killed, gutted, and dried for that purpose. This was certainly a way of keeping out some of the cold air, but it is so odd an one, that, probably, no-body since that time has tried it."

Original source unknown: perhaps Columella, Palladius or Pinly (the elder)

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Image: Stonehenge - Winter Solstice 2014

We Discovered More About The Honeybee 'Wake-Up Call'—And It Could Help Save Them

Phys.org By Martin Bencsik and Michael Ramsey,  The Conversation December 21, 2018

Remotely monitoring honeybee hives can help track the health of the colony. Credit: weter78/ Shutterstock

Remotely monitoring honeybee hives can help track the health of the colony. Credit: weter78/ Shutterstock

Worldwide honeybee populations are in peril – and it's a dire situation for humans. Threats from climate change, toxic pesticides, and disease have all contributed to a steep honeybee population decline since 2006. And as a third of the food we eat is a direct result of insect pollination – including by honeybees – there could be serious consequences for us if the species goes extinct.

We recently uncovered more about a well-known, important honeybee signal known as the dorso-ventral abdominal vibration (DVAV) signal. Known as the honeybee "wake-up call," this signal tells other bees to prepare for an increase in work load, particularly in relation to foraging. We developed a remote sensor which allowed us to monitor honeybee colonies without opening the hive. By understanding the frequency and strength of the DVAV signal in the hive, beekeepers and researchers might be better able to monitor the health of bee colonies worldwide.

In many countries (and in Europe in particular), the woodland habitat that honeybees require no longer exists, so the majority of honeybees only survive thanks to beekeepers, who provide boxes and hives for them to live in. As such, being able to continuously monitor honeybee colonies is essential to their survival.

Problems can arise quickly in a colony, with devastating effects. While commercial beekeepers are doing their best to monitor bee populations in hives, checking on every single hive's population is a near impossible task, as some professionals have more than 1,000 colonies to care for.

Recent research has focused on finding ways to monitor honeybee populations without having to physically open hives. This will help beekeepers better check the safety of their colonies and may help sustain honeybee populations.

A BEE DELIVERING A SERIES OF DVAV SIGNALS.

We have been particularly interested in researching the vibrations resulting from honeybee activity within hives to better understand their in-hive behaviour. By detecting and measuring the vibrations sent through the honeycomb by individual bees, we are able to study and decode the messages honeybees are sending each other.

Bee communication

The DVAV signal is one well-known form of honeybee communication which tells other bees in the hive to prepare for increased work load. This signal lasts one second and occurs when a honeybee grips a recipient bee with her front legs and rhythmically shakes her abdomen back and forth, usually 20 times per second.

Using an accelerometer sensor (which measures the rate of acceleration the bee's body vibrates) with automated recording software, we were able to continuously monitor activity in the honeybee hive. Our research found that we can pick up the DVAV signal in the hive when honeybees pass near our sensor. Knowing this allows us to refine our assessment of the health of the colony, as specific health disorders will be reflected in changes in the hive's overall DVAV activity levels.

This "wake-up call" was not previously known to produce any vibration within the honeycomb, but we now have recorded the associated waveform in outstanding detail. Additional video analysis allowed us to confirm that it was the DVAV signal our sensor was detecting. From this, we were then able to create further machine-learning software to automatically detect and log any occurrence of DVAVs from the data our sensor picked up.

A DVAV SIGNAL IS DETECTED.

We monitored this signal in three hives in the UK and France for up to 16 months. We found that the signal is very common and highly repeatable. It unexpectedly occurs more frequently at night, with a distinct decrease towards mid-afternoon – a trend that is opposite to the amplitude (strength, or loudness) of the signals. We also found that honeybees will commonly produce this signal directly onto the comb.

This, alongside other research, suggests the DVAV signal may not function only as a wake-up call. For instance, this signal might be a way for bees to probe the contents of the honeycomb in order to check the honey and pollen storage levels, or for the presence of eggs. The amplitude of the signal, which varies a lot between night and day, might indicate the context in which the message is being produced. Its nighttime enhanced frequency is both a new discovery and, presently, an amazing mystery.

This new insight into the DVAV signal will help scientists recreate it so that we can try to communicate with the bees. By driving a precise replica of DVAV signal waves into the honeycomb (something not possible before our study), researchers will be able to transmit meaningful messages to the colony. This will let them check that enhanced colony activity is achieved, and will also allow them to further understand the DVAV signal's specific functions.

Our new research builds upon the work done by Karl von Frisch who decoded the meaning of the honeybee "waggle dance". Von Frisch discovered honeybees use it to alert each other of nectar in the area, and it gives highly precise instructions on where to find it. The waggle dance is still discussed today as an example of astonishing sophistication in insect communication. The discovery also prompted a shift in our thinking about other life forms, and how they impact our lives.

With the current evidence we have about humanity's detrimental effect on Earth, it is likely that society's impact on the planet will only get worse. Despite our desire to protect endangered species, we frequently make decisions for humanity's benefit which are damaging to the environment. By highlighting another fascinating element of honeybee communication, we hope that our work will help shift humanity's thinking and make sustainability of the planet the top priority.

Explore further: Surprised honeybees give 'whooping signal' in the hive, study shows

Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-12-honeybee-wake-up-calland.html#jCp

Provided by: The Conversation 

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.

Genome Published of The Small Hive Beetle, A Major Honey Bee Parasite

Phys.org From the Department of Agriculture December 20, 2018

Small hive beetles in a honey bee colony. Credit: Agricultural Research Service-USDA

Small hive beetles in a honey bee colony. Credit: Agricultural Research Service-USDA

Beekeepers and researchers will welcome the unveiling of the small hive beetle's genome by Agricultural Research Service (ARS) scientists and their colleagues. The small hive beetle (SHB) is a major parasite problem of honey bees for which there are few effective treatments.

The SHB (Aethina tumida Murray) genome—a genome is the sum total of all an organism's DNA; a gene codes for a single protein to be built—is available at is available at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/annotation_euk/Aethina_tumida/100 and was recently published in GigaScience.

This information will provide crucial keys that should lead to better, more targeted SHB control methods, including insecticidal treatments and possibly even genetic/breeding solutions.

The SHB has a strong gene-guided system that lets the beetle detoxify many insecticides. Having the genome will allow researchers to gain a more precise understanding of these detoxification genes, so more effective choices for control treatments can be made.

"The big challenge is identifying control methods that will target SHBs but not harm honey bees," said geneticist Jay Evans, who ran the project and is also leader of the ARS Bee Research Laboratory. "One strategy is to look for insecticides that hit pathways in the genome where the SHB has few or no detoxification genes. It would be even better if an insecticide could be identified for which the honey bee has detoxification genes but that the SHB doesn't.

A native of sub-Saharan Africa, the SHB has spread to many other locations, including North America, Europe, Australia, and the Philippines. It was first found in the United States in 1996 and during the summer of 1998, the SHB was blamed for losses of more than 20,000 honey bee colonies in Florida alone.

Today, the SHB has spread throughout the United States. It is a major problem especially for queen breeders and honey production. SHBs eat everything and anything in a bee colony: pollen, brood, honey, dead adult bees and combs) and cause honey to ferment in the process. If the number of SHBs is high enough, adult bees will abscond from the hive.

One avenue to which the SHB genome has already pointed is where to look for clues for how the SHB finds beehives; what pheromones or other smells do SHBs follow to target honey bee colonies.

Although there are about 350,000 beetle species and subspecies, only seven beetle genomes, including the SHB, have been completed and published.

Completing the SHB genome takes on even more importance when you realize that among the SHB's close relatives are the destructive and invasive Asian longhorned beetle along with other sap beetles that are pests of sweet corn, tomatoes, strawberries and other fruit and vegetable crops.

The Agricultural Research Service is the U.S. Department of Agriculture's chief scientific in-house research agency. Daily, ARS focuses on solutions to agricultural problems affecting America. Each dollar invested in agricultural research results in $20 of economic impact.

Explore further: Study examines insecticide's effects on honey bees

Journal reference: GigaScience

Provided by: US Department of Agriculture

Read more at:https://phys.org/news/2018-12-genome-published-small-hive-beetle.html#jCp

660 Species Of Bees Live In Newly Shrunk National Monument

National Geographic By Katarina Zimmer December 17, 2018

Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument supports hundreds of bee species, possibly because of its diversity of flowers. This newly discovered bee biodiversity hotspot is at risk now that the monument has been shrunk. Photograph by Olivia Messinger Carril

Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument supports hundreds of bee species, possibly because of its diversity of flowers. This newly discovered bee biodiversity hotspot is at risk now that the monument has been shrunk. Photograph by Olivia Messinger Carril

Scientists have found a striking diversity of bees, in the most extensive study of Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument to date.

AT FIRST GLANCE, it might not seem as if life thrives in the dry, otherworldly expanses of Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument. The high, rugged patch in southern Utah is mostly known for its jagged cliffs, steep canyons, and vast, arid deserts. But bee biologist Olivia Messinger Carril knows better.

For four years, she and a team of volunteers spent nearly every summer day combing the Delaware-sized area, bit by bit, in search of bees the untrained eye might miss. The main result: An awful lot of bees live there.

Not just your ordinary yellow-and-black striped ones. There were iridescent blue mason bees, purple bees, green bees, and brilliant red bees. Bald bees, hairy bees, “big bumblers you can hear coming from a mile away, and tiny, tiny little ones that are the size of a comma in the books you’re reading,” says Carril, a science teacher at Santa Fe Girls School who does research on the side.

All in all, a whopping 660 species live within the monument’s boundaries. That’s nearly every fifth bee species in North America. Forty-nine of these were entirely new to science, according to the recently published research.

Why this remote patch of Utah is such a busy place for bees is somewhat of a mystery. It likely mirrors the diversity of desert flowers the insects pollinate, as well as the range of habitats…

Continue reading: https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/2018/12/bee-city-at-risk-after-grand-staircase-escalante-divided/

Related:

Shrinking of Utah National Monument May Threaten Bee Biodiversity

Smithsonian.com By Brigit Katz December 17, 2018

The Grand Staircase-Escalante is home to 660 bee species, 84 of which will live outside of protected land under changes

From left, small and large carpenter bees (Ceratina and Xylocopa, respectively, visit a wild rose in Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument. (Joseph S. Wilson, USU)

From left, small and large carpenter bees (Ceratina and Xylocopa, respectively, visit a wild rose in Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument. (Joseph S. Wilson, USU)

In December of last year, President Donald Trump issued a proclamation announcing his plans to shrink Utah’s Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument to nearly half of its original size. Comprising a remote and beautiful stretch of canyons, cliffs and desert, the monument is home to a huge range of biodiversity, including hundreds of bee species. And some of those buzzing critters could be imperilled by the planned modifications, according to a new study.

As Katarina Zimmer reports for National Geographic, research published last month in the journal PeerJ found that 660 bee species make their home in the Grand Staircase-Escalante, among them 49 species that are new to science. Over the course of four years, scientists catalogued black and yellow bees, red bees, turquoise bees, social bees, solitary bees, bees that nest in the ground, and bees that nest in cavities and twigs. It is not clear why so many bee species have chosen to make their home in the monument, but they may be attracted to the diversity of the landscape, which offers a range of habitats and desert plants.

Most of the bees were found to dwell in geographically isolated locations, prompting the researchers to wonder how the administration’s proposed changes to Grand Staircase-Escalante will affect bee populations that live there. According to Emily Birnbaum of the Hill, the plan involves splitting the monument into three smaller ones, which could in turn open newly unprotected land to human development, like mining, road construction and natural gas extraction.

As part of a follow-up study published this month, also in PeerJ, a number of the researchers involved in the first report studied the distribution of bees across old and new boundaries. They found that most of the bees—87 percent of the 660 species—live in areas that will continue to lie within the monument once its boundaries are reduced. But “that leaves about 84 species no longer inhabiting protected land,” says Joseph Wilson, an evolutionary ecologist at Utah State University and lead author of the new study.

Some of these bees are unique “morphospecies,” or individuals that don’t match any known species, and others still have not been described. A number of newly excluded bee species also represent the northern or southern extent of their range in the region, which is important because “they can provide valuable information about how bee species might respond to climate change,” according to the study authors.

The researchers are also worried about possible threats to Grand Staircase-Escalante’s bees because, as pollinating insects, bees play a crucial role in their ecosystems. Indeed, the decline of honeybees across the globe, due largely to the use of bee-killing pesticides has sparked acute concerns about biodiversity loss and detrimental impacts on food production.

But for now, it is not known how the shrinking of the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument will impact the bees that live there. None of the excluded species seem to be currently threatened, and few are universally rare, occurring in other regions of the western United States. And while bees perform “a critical ecological service as pollinators,” the study authors write, “the role of these specific bees in maintaining functioning plant–pollinator networks has not been evaluated to any extent.”

Further study is needed, in other words, to fully assess the ramifications of the proclamation. It is not even clear if the proposed modifications will happen. Native American and conservation groups have filed lawsuits against the president, arguing that his plans to reduce the Grand Staircase-Escalante and another Utah monument, Bears Ears, are illegal and exceed the president’s authority.

Read more: https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/shrinking-utah-national-monument-may-threaten-bees-180971052/#0hvJV4Aril3E0d1B.99

Additional Related Articles:
https://phys.org/news/2018-12-bees-grand-staircase-escalante-national-monument.html https://phys.org/news/2018-11-utah-grand-staircase-escalante-national-monument.html

What Native California Plants Are Best For Attracting Pollinators?

Bug Squad By Kathy Keatley Garvey December 18, 2018

What Native California Plants Are Best For Attracting Pollinators?

That's a question often asked.

Now for answers.

Ola Lundin, first author

Ola Lundin, first author

Neal Williams, professor and Chancellor’s fellow

Neal Williams, professor and Chancellor’s fellow

Kimiora Ward, project scientist (Photos: Kathy Keatley Garvey)

Kimiora Ward, project scientist (Photos: Kathy Keatley Garvey)

Three pollination ecologists from the University of California, Davis, have just published their research, “Identifying Native Plants for Coordinated Habitat Management of Arthropod Pollinators, Herbivores and Natural Enemies,” in the Journal of Applied Ecology. It details what plants proved most attractive to honey bees, wild bees and other pollinators, as well as what drew such natural enemies as predators and parasitic wasps.

“I hope this study can inform selection of plants that support pollinators and natural enemies without enhancing potential pests,” said lead researcher and first author Ola Lundin, a former postdoctoral fellow in the Neal Williams lab, UC Davis Department of Entomology and Nematology and now a postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.

He and co-authors Williams, professor of entomology and a Chancellor's Fellow at UC Davis; and project specialist Kimiora Ward of the Williams lab conceived the ideas and developed the methodology for the research project.

“Planting wildflowers is a key strategy promoted nationally to support wild and managed bees,” said Williams. “Successful adoption of these plantings in agricultural landscapes will require that they not only support pollinators but that they also avoid supporting too many pests. Plant selection going forward will need to balance multiple goals of pollinators pest management and other functions. This research is a first step on the path to identifying plants that will meet these goals."

The trio established 43 plant species in a garden experiment on the grounds of the Harry H. Laidlaw Jr. Honey Bee Research Facility at UC Davis. They selected plant species that were drought-tolerant; native to California (except for buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum, known to attract natural enemies and widely used in conservation biological control); and, as a group, covered a range of flowering periods throughout the season. (Download the plant species here.)

The Great Valley gumplant (Grindelia camporum) was one of the 43 plants tested. Here a cukoo bee Triepelous Epeolus, forages on a blossom. (Photo by Kathy Keatley Garvey)

The Great Valley gumplant (Grindelia camporum) was one of the 43 plants tested. Here a cukoo bee Triepelous Epeolus, forages on a blossom. (Photo by Kathy Keatley Garvey)

Every week, over a two-year period during the peak bloom of each plant species, they engaged in three different sampling techniques: netting wild bees, observing honey bees, and vacuuming insect herbivores, arthropod predators and parasitic wasps.

“For early season bloom, Great Valley phacelia (Phacelia ciliata) was a real winner in terms of being attractive for both wild bees and honey bees,” Lundin said. “Elegant Clarkia (Clarkia unguiculata) flowers in late spring and was the clearly most attractive plant for honey bees across the dataset. The related Fort Miller Clarkia (C. williamsonii) was also quite attractive for honey bees and had the added benefit that a lot of minute pirate bugs visited the flowers.”

Lundin said that common yarrow (Achillea millefolium)“attracted “attracted the highest numbers of parasitic wasps but also many herbivores, including Lygus bugs.”

“In general a lot of parasitic wasps were found on Asteraceae species (the daisy family) and this was a somewhat surprising result considering that they have narrow corollas, and for parasitic wasps relatively deep corollas that can restrict their direct access to nectar. Under the very dry conditions in late summer, Great Valley gumplant (Grindelia camporum) and Vinegarweed (Trichostema lanceolatum) both performed well and attracted high numbers of wild bees.”

The team found that across plant species, herbivore, predator and parasitic wasp abundances were “positively correlated,” and “honey bee abundance correlated negatively to herbivore abundance.”

The take-home message is that “if you're a gardener or other type of land manager, what you'd likely prefer would be a mix of some of the most promising plant species taking into account their individual attractiveness for these arthropod groups, plus several more factors including costs for seed when planting larger areas,” Lundin said.

“Plant choice can also depend on how you weigh the importance of each arthropod group and whether you are interested in spring, summer or season-long bloom,” Lundin added. Those are some of the questions that the Williams lab plans to explore in future projects.

Phacelia californica was among the 43 plants tested. Here a bumble bee, Bombus vandykei, and a honey bee, Apils melllifera, share a blossom. (Photo by Kathy Keatley Garvey)

Phacelia californica was among the 43 plants tested. Here a bumble bee, Bombus vandykei, and a honey bee, Apils melllifera, share a blossom. (Photo by Kathy Keatley Garvey)

“It was fascinating for me to see how these and other plants flowering in the latter part of the summer not only survived but also seemed to enjoy themselves in the heat without water for months!” Lundin quipped.

Williams praised the “uniquely capable team that came together.”

“Ola is an emerging leader in considering integrated management of pests and pollinators and Kimiora is a known expert in developing regionally-relevant plant materials to support pollinators,” Williams said. “They and some talented UC Davis undergraduates--notably Katherine Borchardt and Anna Britzman--compiled a tremendously useful study.”

The overall aim of the study “was to identify California native plants, and more generally plant traits, suitable for coordinated habitat management of arthropod pollinators, herbivores and natural enemies and promote integrated ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes,” the researchers wrote.

More specifically, they asked:

  1. Which native plants among our candidate set attract the highest abundances of wild bees, honeybees, herbivores, predators, and parasitic wasps,

  2. If the total abundances of arthropods within these functional groups across plant speacies are related to the peak flowering week, floral area, or flower type of the focal plant species, and

  3. If the total abundances of arthropods within these functional groups are correlated to each other across plant species.

“A first critical step for design and implementation of multifunctional plantings that promote beneficial arthropods while controlling insect pests is to identify suitable plant species to use,” the authors wrote in their abstract. “We aimed to identify California native plants and, more generally, plant traits suitable for the coordinated management of pollinators (wild bees and honey bees), insect herbivores and arthropod natural enemies (predators and parasitic wasps).”

At the time, the Laidlaw grounds included nearly 50 bee colonies: some 20 to 40 honey bee colonies, and eight managed research colonies of the yellow-faced bumble bee, Bombus vosnesenkii.

The project drew funding from the USDA Resources Conservation Service, USDA Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture and a Swedish foundation for scientific research, the Carl Tryggers Stiftelse for Vetenskaplig Forskning.

Phacelia campanularia was one of the 43 plants tested in the UC Davis research garden. Here a honey bee sips nectar from a blossom. (Photo by Kathy Keatley Garvey)

Phacelia campanularia was one of the 43 plants tested in the UC Davis research garden. Here a honey bee sips nectar from a blossom. (Photo by Kathy Keatley Garvey)

These are some of the 43 plants tested in the UC Davis research garden. This is an illustration from the research paper. (Photos by Ola Lundin)   https://ucanr.edu/blogs/blogcore/postdetail.cfm?postnum=28959

These are some of the 43 plants tested in the UC Davis research garden. This is an illustration from the research paper. (Photos by Ola Lundin)

https://ucanr.edu/blogs/blogcore/postdetail.cfm?postnum=28959

How the Hell Do You Vaccinate a Bee?

HAARETZ By Ruth Schuster December 18, 2018

a bee Credit: AMR ABDALLAH DALSH/ REUTERS

a bee Credit: AMR ABDALLAH DALSH/ REUTERS

Scientists propose to inoculate bees against deadly diseases
reportedly decimating their colonies lest we all starve, and no,
vaccines don’t cause autism in insects either

Many and myriad a solution has been touted for the catastrophes reportedly afflicting bee colonies around the world, spurring fears that the loss of their pollinating powers will lead to massive crop losses.

Honeycomb with bees. credit: philippe wojazer, reuters

Honeycomb with bees. credit: philippe wojazer, reuters

The latest wrinkle is to vaccinate the insects against diseases implicated in colony collapse disorder, a method (dubbed PrimeBEE) developed by two scientists in the University of Helsinki, Dalial Freitak and Heli Salmela, and reported by AFP and ZME Science.

Dead bees killed by mite infestation. Credit: Getty Images IL

Dead bees killed by mite infestation. Credit: Getty Images IL

There is no consensus about the extent of the problem, or even whether bee colony collapse disorder is a thing, let alone a worsening thing. Some experts claim that declines in world bee populations is a natural fluctuation or that, in any case, it is reversible. The cause of the declining bee populations is variously ascribed to pesticides, geomagnetic disturbances (impairing the bees’ navigation), vampire-like mites, viruses, sunspots (navigation again), bacteria, fungi, climate change, and malnutrition. Or a combination of some or all of these. Some even claim that although there is a problem, its dimensions have been egregiously overstated.

The one thing we’re sure of is that bees are good, certainly since we have abandoned a life of hunting and grubbing for roots in favor of industrial farming. Around a third of the plants people eat require pollination (grains don’t), and while fruit bats and other living beings play their part, bees are estimated to be responsible for about a third of that. No question, the insect is crucial to food security.

Fruit bats are lovely but no replacement for bees. credit: Tomer Appelbaum

Fruit bats are lovely but no replacement for bees. credit: Tomer Appelbaum

So, whether or not colony collapse is a thing, clearly prevention is worth an ounce of honey. A riot of flower species are being planted or just allowed to grow between European crop fields, to vary the bees’ sources of nectar for the sake of their nutrition; in England, farmers have been planting hedgerows and trees because honey bees prefer them to “just” flowers.

Scientists have experimented with fighting mite infestations by a method involving exposing the bees to cold (by, er, shutting them in the fridge), while others are monkeying around with rich solutions to augment their feed.

Some people propose to replace the humbled honeybee with other more robust bee species, bats or whatever. (Robot bees don’t seem to be the answer.) And now Finnish scientists have invented the first-ever vaccines for bees. One gets a mental picture of a nimble-fingered scientist armed with an extremely fine needle and infinite patience. But one would be wrong.

bees in a hive. credit: chris o’meara, ap

bees in a hive. credit: chris o’meara, ap

The inoculating chemical is put into a sugar cube that is fed to the queen bee, who passes the immunity onto her offspring. The scientists have begun their testing process with a sugar-coated vaccine against so-called “American foulbrood” – a fatal bacterial condition that actually affects bees around the world. Unhappily for our friends the bees, foulbrood is caused by sporulating bacteria, meaning hardy ones, and it’s highly infectious. It infects and kills bee larvae, not adults, hence the name.

The bee vaccination technique will take some four to five years to perfect, lead researcher Freitak told AFP.

Intriguingly, bee vaccination isn’t about injecting an antigen that provokes production of antibodies. Insect immune systems don’t have antibodies, but as the University of Helsinki explains, Freitak had noticed (in moths) that if the parents eat certain bacteria in their food, their offspring show elevated immune responses to that germ. Ultimately, this led to the thought of a delivery system of the vaccination via food. They started with foulbrood because it’s so deadly and infectious. Right now, the technique is being tested for safety, following which commercialization can ensue.

Also, given that vaccinations do not cause autism in people (with all due respect to the lunatic fringe), there’s no reason to think they cause mental acuity or behavioral issues in bees.

Although much work remains to be done – including to adapt the technique to a lot more bacteria, fungi and other nasties – as Freitak stated: “If we can save even a small part of the bee population with this invention, I think we have done our good deed and saved the world a little bit.”

It isn't clear if colony collapse syndrome is a huge problem or hype: Meanwhile, here are some bees flying around. credit: bloomberg

It isn't clear if colony collapse syndrome is a huge problem or hype: Meanwhile, here are some bees flying around. credit: bloomberg

The First-Ever Insect Vaccine Prime-BEE Helps Bees Stay Healthy

University of Helsinki By Elina Raukko October 31, 2018

Photo: Helsinki Innovation Services

Photo: Helsinki Innovation Services

The easily administered edible vaccine could keep pollinators safe from bacterial diseases and give invaluable support for food production worldwide.

Food and pollination services are important for everyone: humans, production animals and wildlife alike. Inventing something that guards against pollinator losses will have a tremendous impact.

PrimeBEE is the first-ever vaccine for honey bees and other pollinators. It fights severe microbial diseases that can be detrimental to pollinator communities. The invention is the fruit of research carried out by two scientists in the University of Helsinki, Dalial Freitak and Heli Salmela.

The basis of the innovation is quite simple. When the queen bee eats something with pathogens in it, the pathogen signature molecules are bound by vitellogenin. Vitellogenin then carries these signature molecules into the queen’s eggs, where they work as inducers for future immune responses.

Before this, no-one had thought that insect vaccination could be possible at all. That is because the insect immune system, although rather similar to the mammalian system, lacks one of the central mechanisms for immunological memory – antibodies.
"Now we've discovered the mechanism to show that you can actually vaccinate them. You can transfer a signal from one generation to another," researcher Dalial Freitak states.

From moths to honey bees

Dalial Freitak has been working with insects and the immune system throughout her career. Starting with moths, she noticed that if the parental generation is exposed to certain bacteria via their food, their offspring show elevated immune responses.

"So they could actually convey something by eating. I just didn't know what the mechanism was. At the time, as I started my post-doc work in Helsinki, I met with Heli Salmela, who was working on honeybees and a protein called vitellogenin. I heard her talk and I was like: OK, I could make a bet that it is your protein that takes my signal from one generation to another. We started to collaborate, got funding from the Academy of Finland, and that was actually the beginning of PrimeBEE," Dalial Freitak explains.

Fu­ture plans: vac­cin­at­ing honey bees against any mi­crobe

PrimeBEE's first aim is to develop a vaccine against American foulbrood, a bacterial disease caused by the spore-forming Paenibacillus larvae ssp. larvae. American foulbrood is the most widespread and destructive of the bee brood diseases.

"We hope that we can also develop a vaccination against other infections, such as European foulbrood and fungal diseases. We have already started initial tests. The plan is to be able to vaccinate against any microbe".

At the same time as the vaccine’s safety is being tested in the laboratory, the project is being accelerated towards launching a business. Sara Kangaspeska, Head of Innovation at Helsinki Innovation Services HIS, has been involved with the project right from the start.

"Commercialisation has been a target for the project from the beginning. It all started when Dalial and Heli contacted us. They first filed an invention disclosure to us describing the key findings of the research. They then met with us to discuss the case in detail and since then, the University has proceeded towards filing a patent application that reached the national phase in January 2018.”

A big step forward was to apply for dedicated commercialisation funding from Business Finland, a process which is coordinated and supported by HIS. HIS assigns a case owner for each innovation or commercialisation project, who guides the project from A to Z and works hands-on with the researcher team.

“HIS core activities are to identify and support commercialisation opportunities stemming from the University of Helsinki research. PrimeBEE is a great example of an innovation maturing towards a true commercial seed ready to be spun-out from the University soon. It has been inspiring and rewarding to work together with the researchers towards a common goal,” says Sara Kangaspeska.

The latest news is that based on the PrimeBEE invention, a spinout company called Dalan Animal Health will be founded in the very near future.

"We need to help honey bees, absolutely. Even improving their life a little would have a big effect on the global scale. Of course, the honeybees have many other problems as well: pesticides, habitat loss and so on, but diseases come hand in hand with these life-quality problems. If we can help honey bees to be healthier and if we can save even a small part of the bee population with this invention, I think we have done our good deed and saved the world a little bit," Dalial Freitak asserts.

Organismal and Evolutionary Biology Research Programme
Centre of Excellence in Biological Interactions

In short:

Honeybees are central for providing food for humans, production animals and wildlife by pollinating more than 80% of the plant species in the world. Recent years have witnessed a decline in pollinator numbers worldwide, threatening the food and fodder production. Among other reasons, emerging diseases are raging havoc in bee populations.

PrimeBEE is the first-ever insect vaccine, which is based on the trans-generational immune priming mechanism, allowing immunological signals to be passed from queen bees to her offspring. PrimeBEE insect vaccine is easily administered as it can be added to the queen bee's food. The queen then conveys the disease resistance to its progeny.

JOIN US: We are now looking for investors and funding to help save a little bit of the world! CON­TACT IN­FOR­MA­TION: Dr. Dalial Freitak, Dr. Annette Kleiser, and Dr. Franziska Dickel

PrimeBee website

https://www.helsinki.fi/en/news/sustainability-news/the-first-ever-insect-vaccine-primebee-helps-bees-stay-healthy

Farm Bill Mostly Neutral On Pollinators. Research Funding Up Or Steady, And Added Sugar Off The Table

Farm Bill.jpg

December 14, 2018

By: R. Thomas (Tom) Van Arsdall
Director of Public Affairs, and
Val Dolcin, President & CEO
The Pollinator Partnership

Tom Van Arsdall from the Pollinator Partnership (P2) has waded through the 807 pages of the Farm Bill now headed to the President’s office for signing. We asked P2 if the bill had any radical changes, good or bad, for pollinators in general compared to the bill passed 5 years ago. Here is the summary of their evaluation.

Summary:
• Reauthorizes Pollinator conservation and research provisions enacted in the 2008 and 2014 farm bill (P2 leading role in each)
• Adds major new, enhanced coordination of honeybee/pollinator research provisions under the USDA Chief Scientist (advocated by AHPA, supported by P2)
o New Honey Bee and Pollinator Research Coordinator established in Office of the Chief Scientist.
o “Implement and coordinate research efforts per recommendation of the Pollinator Health Task Force.”
o Provides specific direction on the scope of research to be conducted and coordinated (SEE legislative language excerpts)
• Adds specialty crop pollinators eligibility to Specialty Crops Research Initiative
• Adds habitat for honey bees and other pollinators under supplemental and alternative crops section
• Does NOT include major provision that was in the Senate-passed farm bill, which essentially would have codified in detail the Pollinator Health Task Force/Strategy implemented pursuant to the Presidential Memorandum on Honey Bee and Pollinator Health.
o In addition to reference to the Pollinator Health Task Force in research language (cited above), the joint statement of managers encourages “the continuation of interagency collaboration and policy development as recommended by the Pollinator Health Task Force.”
o So at least the Presidential Memorandum, National Strategy on Honey Bee and Pollinator Health and the Pollinator Health Task Force remain in effect (no harm done).
• There’s also language clarifying that beekeepers qualify for ELAP, and clarifying what constitutes covered losses.
• While language in the Joint Statement of Managers doesn’t have force of law, it does provide clarification on legislative language decisions, plus intent of the conferees. This can be useful in advocacy efforts during implementation.
• Lots of other provisions in the farm bill can benefit/impact honey bees and other pollinators that were generally encouraging. For example –
o CRP cap will increase from 24 to 27 million acres. However, payment rates will be limited to 85% of rental rates, making CRP less attractive choice.
o Conservation Stewardship Program (CSP), to continue, but at reduced funding.
o Foundation for Food and Agriculture Research (FFAR), an additional $185 million provided (FFAR announced last spring $15 million in leveraged funds for pollinator research).

P2 hasn’t had a chance to track down the specific sections of law referenced in the legislative language [sometimes just reference to sections being amended or deleted]. For example, according to news reports, reportedly no more cost-share assistance will be provided to growers for pollinator mixes for CRP (CP-42), largely due to excessive cost. Not able to confirm at this point.

“P2 has been concerned about excessive cost of CP-42 pollinator mix and appreciates conferees’ statements urging USDA to develop more affordable mixes for honey bee and pollinator forage.”
By: R. Thomas (Tom) Van Arsdall, Director of Public Affairs, and
Val Dolcini, President & CEO
The Pollinator Partnership

***************

Other provisions not directly affecting pollinators, but certainly bees and beekeeping, were shared with us by other groups including the following –

Taking a bipartisan approach in the crafting of their measure, The Senate Agriculture Committee included many provisions important to our industry:
• $80 million in funding for all specialty crops under the Specialty Crop Research Initiative (SCRI) and new prioritization for mechanization projects
§ $25 million annually for citrus greening research through the Emergency Citrus Disease Research and Development Trust Fund
§ $4 million annually for a new research initiative focusing on urban agriculture
§ Reauthorization of the Office of Pest Management Policy
§ Full $85 million in funding for the Specialty Crop Block Grant Program (SCBGP) with $5 million set aside for multi-state programs to be administered through the Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS)
§ An increase to $50 million in mandatory funding for the Food Insecurity Nutrition Incentive Program (FINI)
§ Full funding for trade programs such as the Market Access Program (MAP) and the Technical Assistance for Specialty Crops Program (TASC)

The No Added Sugar change was welcomed by the both the beekeeping and maple syrup industries, if not the FDA and AMS sections of the USDA.

The new farm bill prevents maple syrup and honey producers from being required to list their pure products as containing added sugars on their nutrition labels — a plan proposed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration months ago that producers said was misleading.

The FDA’s goal was to update the Nutrition Facts label on products to educate consumers about the amount of added sugars in foods based on government dietary guidelines. However, no sugar is added to pure maple syrup or honey.
After getting thousands of comments on the draft plan, the FDA acknowledged in June the labeling was confusing and said it would come up with an alternative approach for maple syrup and honey.

“This was a huge mistake by the FDA so we got a common sense outcome to the pretty witless labeling requirement,” maple syrup producers said, echoed by beekeepers everywhere.

The farm bill exempts “any single-ingredient sugar, honey, agave, or syrup” that is packaged and offered for sale as a single-ingredient food from bearing the declaration ‘includes X g Added Sugars” in the nutrition label.

The FDA said in a written statement that it does not comment on pending legislation. It said it was drafting its final guidance, which it anticipates issuing by early next year.

“This guidance will provide a path forward for pure, single-ingredient ‘packaged as such’ products that does not involve the standard ‘added sugars’ declaration on the Nutrition Facts label,” the statement said.

BeeCulture/Catch the Buzz: Farm Bill

Researchers Discover Honeybee Gynandromorph With Two Fathers And No Mother

Phys.org By Bob Yirka November 28, 2018

Credit CCO Public Domain

Credit CCO Public Domain

A team of researchers at the University of Sydney has discovered a honeybee gynandromorph with two fathers and no mother—the first ever of its kind observed in nature. In their paper published in the journal Biology Letters, the group describes their study of honeybee gynandromorphs and what they found.

Honeybees are haplodiploid creatures—which means that females develop from fertilized eggs, while males arise from eggs that are not fertilized. Because of this, honeybees are susceptible to producing gynandromorphs, creatures with both male and female tissue. This is different from hermaphrodites, which are one gender but have sex organs of both male and female. In this new effort, the researchers sought to learn more about the nature of gynandromorphs and what causes them.

Prior research has suggested the likelihood that rare mutations result in the creation of gynandromorphs. The mechanics of the process are due to multiple males mating with a queen, resulting in more than a single sperm fertilizing an egg. To learn more about the genetics involved, the researchers captured 11 gynandromorph honeybees, all from a single colony, and studied their genome.

The genetic makeup of the gynandromorphs revealed that five of them had normal ovaries, while three had ovaries that were similar to those of the queen. Also, one of them had normal male sex organs while two had only partial sex organs. The researchers also found that out of the 11 gynandromorphs tested, nine had either two or three fathers. And remarkably, one had two fathers but no mother—a development that could only have occurred through the development of sperm fusion.

The researchers note that gynandromorphs confer no known evolutionary advantage for a species; thus, their development must be due to mistakes resulting in still unknown mutations. They suggest that the large number of gynandromorphs in a single hive likely means the queen carries the mutation. They note that gynandromorphs have been observed in other species as well, including some crustaceans, other insects and a few bird species. The mutation that causes it in those other species has not been found, either.

Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-11-honeybee-gynandromorph-fathers-mother.html#jCp

Bee Friendly Insecticide, Made From Olive Oil, Creates A Buzz Around Europe

A UK-Italian business is cornering the EU market with an innovative crop protection technology based on a bee-friendly insecticide.

UK Italian Business .jpg

Headquartered in Cambridge, AlphaBio Control developed the technology from discoveries made at the convergence of natural chemistry and microbiology.

Its lead product, FLiPPER®, was launched in 2017 by original founders Iain Fleming and Alfeo Vecchi and has just won a Silver Award for Environmental Best Practice at The Green Organisation’s Green Apple Awards 2018. The ceremony at the Houses of Parliament was hosted by Liz Kendall MP.

FLIPPER is a natural, environment and bee-friendly organic insecticide derived from the natural by-product of extra virgin olive oil.

It is being used around Europe to control aphids, whitefly, thrips, mites, psylla, leaf hoppers and scale with negligible impact on honey bees, bumble bees, pollinators, other beneficial insects – or humans.

It is currently available to the UK wholesale market via the horticultural distributor Fargro Ltd and is also widely used in France, Italy, Greece, Spain and the Netherlands.

In the UK it currently has label approval for use on strawberries, tomatoes and cucumbers under protection and off label approval for peppers, chillies and aubergines.

Further, more extensive and conventional label approvals are being processed and should be available from next year.

Iain Fleming says: “The launch of FLiPPER® last year marked the culmination of several years of research and development followed by several more years acquiring the necessary regulatory approvals. It has been a long process.

“To get this recognition from The Green Organisation for our work in finding solutions for safer agricultural products without further damaging the natural environment is superb.”

Fleming said the product left no detectable residue, could be used at any point in the growing season, required zero harvest intervals, had a raw material that is food grade and is certified organic.

This year in Italy the product will be applied on an area of 8,750 hectares – mostly on fresh tomatoes and wine grapes to control aphids and leafhoppers respectively.

In Spain the area of use is 3,000 hectares (various fresh fruits and vegetables to control whitefly and thrips); in France 1,000 hectares (principally strawberries to control mites; in the Netherlands ,8250 hectares (both protected and field crop fruits and vegetables to control an number of pests ) and in the UK it is about 750 hectares (tomatoes and strawberries to control whitefly and aphids).

AlphaBio is in the process of procuring the necessary formal consents with the intention that the product should be permitted for use on all fruit and vegetable crops and has a realistic expectation that within three years the product will be being used on 125,000 hectares per annum.

More than 175 fully replicated field trials have been conducted in multiple climatic zones to test FLiPPER®’s efficacy. Tests covered different methods of application and were trialled on queens, drones and worker bees, with no noted mortalities. Because of its profile, it is exempt from EU residue testing requirements.

Registered in the UK and headquartered in Cambridge, AlphaBio Control’s commercial offices are in Reggio Emilia, Italy.

Research director, Alfeo Vecchi, says: “We have created a new process using only heat and pressure that allows us to extract the carboxylic acids of the insecticide from the by-product of extra virgin olive oil.

“We believe this presents an important development in the on-going challenge of finding solutions for safer agricultural products without further damaging the natural environment.”

Initial development costs were met from private funding but additional capital required to compile a dossier for regulatory approval came from an
overseas industry investor.

Sales are steadily increasing and the company is recruiting extra staff for the UK, Italy and recently opened Netherlands office. It believes that within the next 18 to 24 months the business will become self-funding.

Across the course of the FLIPPER project management say they have developed a broad base of knowledge and understanding of the use of natural chemicals in plant protection.

This will now be leveraged to bring other solutions forward for growers, not only in pest control but also in the area of plant diseases.

Bee Friendly Insecticides

Six Essential Perennial Herbs

Thymus vulgaris

Thymus vulgaris

Get advice on growing and harvesting rosemary, sage, thyme, mint, chives and marjoram.

Perennial herbs are easy to grow and will enhance your garden, and your cooking, year after year. They are easy to grow and need very little looking after and can be grown in beds and borders, or in containers on a patio or balcony.

Discover how to pick herbs.

Giving herbs the right growing conditions helps to ensure they have the best flavour. Plant them in full sun, if possible – this will bring the essential oils to the surface of the leaf, giving a strong flavour. Mint, rosemary and chives will tolerate some shade, but if grown in damp, cold soil, they may suffer over winter.

To keep perennial herbs healthy and productive, pick them regularly. All of the herbs featured here also have edible flowers, so pick those too and enjoy them with salads, in drinks and as a garnish. Once they have finished flowering, cut them back. Cutting back evergreen herbs, like rosemary, helps prevent them becoming woody. Discover more about keeping herbs productive.

Herbaceous herbs, such as mint, which die back over winter then regrow in spring, should be cut back to about 4cm above the soil after flowering. You will then get a second crop of fresh new leaves through to the first frosts.

Discover how to get the best from six perennial herbs.

Perennial herbs are easy to grow and will enhance your garden, and your cooking, year after year.

1 Mint

Mint grows best when it is left to spread naturally. It can be invasive, however, so if this is likely to be an issue, grow it in pots. Growing it in full sun will give it the best flavour, although it will also grow in partial shade. Pick the leaves before flowering or after the plant has been cut back in summer.

Mint Leaves

Mint Leaves

Care

The easiest way to preserve mint is to freeze the leaves, whole or chopped. Mint rust produces small, rusty spots that usually start on the underside of the leaf. Cut back hard and remove any fallen leaves from the soil – the new growth should return clean. If mildew becomes a problem, move the plant to a sunny, airy position. Mint leaf beetle can also be an issue.

2 Rosemary

Evergreen rosemary can be harvested throughout the year. The flowers are also edible, with a light rosemary flavour – delicious in rice dishes. Grow in a warm, sunny site in well drained soil. It will also grow well in a container – use a soil-based compost and pot up annually in the autumn.

Rosemary

Rosemary

Care

To keep it productive and to stop it becoming woody, cut back after flowering. Rosemary beetle may be a problem – the beetle and its larvae feed off the leaves from autumn to spring. To tackle an infestation, place sheets of newspaper under the plant, the tap or shake the branches to knock the critters onto the paper, making them easy to dispose of.

3 Sage

The leaves of culinary sage can also be used all year. The flowers are edible and can be scattered in salads or fruit puddings. Sage leaves can be preserved in oil and butter. Plant in a warm, sunny site in well-drained soil. Sage also grows well in a container – use soil-based compost.

Sage

Sage

Care

Cut back after flowering in summer to encourage new growth and to prevent the plant becoming woody. Sage can be prone to leaf hopper – there is not much you can do about it, except to remove damaged leaves. If plants in pots are affected by mildew, move them to an airier situation and remove the damaged leaves.

4 Thyme

Thyme is evergreen and can be used all year round. It makes lovely oils and butters. Plant in a well drained soil in a sunny spot. Thymes do not like wet winters or sitting in water, so make sure that the soil has adequate drainage. To grow in containers, use a soil-based compost mixed with horticultural grit.

Thyme

Thyme

Care

Cut back after flowering to help plants survive the winter. Thyme rarely suffers from pests, although aphids can attack new growth – spray them with soft horticultural soap.

5 Chives

Cut fresh leaves throughout the growing season, and scatter the pretty flowers over salads – they have a mild onion flavour. Preserve the chopped leaves in butter or freeze in ice cube trays without water. Plant in a well-drained, fertile soil in a sunny position and keep well watered throughout the growing season.

Chives

Chives

Care

Mulch with well-rotted manure in autumn. Chives grow well in containers – use a soil-based compost and pot up annually in the spring, when the new growth appears. Onion fly, downy mildew and rust can be a problem – in mild cases, cut back hard, and in severe cases, dig up and bin the plants, taking care not to plant more members of the allium family in the same spot. Find out how to rejuvenate chives.

6 Oregano / marjoram

Oregano

Oregano

The leaves can be picked nearly all year. Oregano originated in the Mediterranean, so plant in a well-drained soil in a sunny position. It will grow happily in a container, using a soil-based compost that has been mixed with a handful of horticultural grit. Preserve it in butters, oils, or dry some sprigs.

Care

Oregano is fairly free from pests and diseases, but die back or powdery mildew can be a problem if planted in heavy soil or partial shade. There are fewer edible leaves when in flower, so cut back the plant after flowering to promote new growth.

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Stronger Pesticide Regulations Likely Needed To Protect All Bee Species, Say Studies

Wild bee Credit: Nigel Raine

Wild bee Credit: Nigel Raine

December 11, 2018, University of Guelph

Pesticide regulations designed to protect honeybees fail to account for potential health threats posed by agrochemicals to the full diversity of bee species that are even more important pollinators of food crops and other plants, say three new international papers co-authored by University of Guelph biologists.

As the global human population grows, and as pollinators continue to suffer declines caused by everything from habitat loss to pathogens, regulators need to widen pesticide risk assessments to protect not just honeybees but other species from bumblebees to solitary bees, said environmental sciences professor Nigel Raine, holder of the Rebanks Family Chair in Pollinator Conservation.

"There is evidence that our dependency on insect-pollinated crops is increasing and will continue to do so as the global population rises," said Raine, co-author of all three papers recently published in the journal Environmental Entomology.

With growing demands for crop pollination outstripping increases in honeybee stocks, he said, "Protecting wild pollinators is more important now than ever before. Honeybees alone simply cannot deliver the crop pollination services we need."

Government regulators worldwide currently use honeybees as the sole model species for assessing potential risks of pesticide exposure to insect pollinators.

But Raine said wild bees are probably more important for pollination of food crops than managed honeybees. Many of those wild species live in soil, but scientists lack information about exposure of adult or larval bees to pesticides through food or soil residues.

The papers call on regulators to look for additional models among solitary bees and bumblebees to better gauge health risks and improve protection for these species.

"Everybody is focused on honeybees," said Angela Gradish, a research associate in the School of Environmental Sciences and lead author of one paper, whose co-authors include Raine and SES Prof. Cynthia Scott-Dupree. "What about these other bees? There are a lot of unknowns about how bumblebees are exposed to pesticides in agricultural environments."

She said bumblebee queens have different life cycles than honeybee counterparts that may increase their contact with pesticides or residues while collecting food and establishing colonies.

"That's a critical difference because the loss of a single bumblebee queen translates into the loss of the colony that she would have produced. It's one queen, but it's a whole colony at risk."

Like honeybees, bumblebees forage on a wide variety of flowering plants. But because bumblebees are larger, they can carry more pollen from plant to plant. They also forage under lower light conditions and in cloudier, cooler weather that deter honeybees.

Those characteristics make bumblebees especially vital for southern Ontario's greenhouse growers.

"Greenhouse tomato producers rely on commercial bumblebee colonies as the only source of pollination for their crops," said Gradish.

The new studies stem from workshops held in early 2017 involving 40 bee researchers from universities and representatives of agrochemical industries and regulatory agencies in Canada, the United States and Europe, including Canada's Pest Management Regulatory Agency.

"I hope we can address shortfalls in the pesticide regulatory process," said Raine, who attended the international meeting held in Washington, D.C.

"Given the great variability that we see in the behaviour, ecology and life history of over 20,000 species of bees in the world, there are some routes of pesticide exposure that are not adequately considered in risk assessments focusing only on honeybees."

Read at: https://phys.org/news/2018-12-stronger-pesticide-bee-species.html#jCp

Explore further: Bee flower choices altered by exposure to pesticides

More information: Environmental Entomology (2018). DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvy103 , https://academic.oup.com/ee/advance-article/doi/10.1093/ee/nvy103/5216322 

Provided by: University of Guelph

Scientists Create Edible Honey Bee Vaccine To Protect Them From Deadly Diseases

Honey bees pollinate a variety of crops, such as apples and melons.

Honey bees pollinate a variety of crops, such as apples and melons.

FOX News By Madeline Farber December 6, 2018

The first-ever vaccine for insects now exists, thanks to scientists at the University of Helsinki in Finland hoping to save one of the most crucial pollinators in the world: the honey bee.

The vaccine, which is edible, “protects bees from diseases while protecting global food production,” the university said in a news release. The goal, researchers said, is to protect the bees against American foulbrood, “a bacterial disease caused by the spore-forming Paenibacillus larvae ssp. Larvae.”

The disease is the “most widespread and destructive of the bee brood diseases,” the university added.

Bloomberg reported the disease can kill “entire colonies” while its “spores can remain viable for more than 50 years.”

To distribute the vaccine, scientists place a sugar patty in the hive, which the queen then eats over the course of about a week. Once ingested, the pathogens in the patty are then passed into the queen’s eggs, “where they work as inducers for future immune responses,” the university explained in the statement.

The vaccine — which is not yet sold commercially, according to Bloomberg — is also significant because it was once not thought possible to develop a vaccine for insects, as these creatures’ immune systems do not contain antibodies.

"Now we've discovered the mechanism to show that you can actually vaccinate them. You can transfer a signal from one generation to another," Dalial Freitak, a University of Helsinki scientist who worked to create the vaccine, said in a statement.

Honey bees are important to the U.S. crop production, contributing an estimated $20 billion to its value, according to the American Beekeeping Foundation. The species pollinate a variety of crops, including apples, melons, blueberries and cherries — the latter two are “90 percent dependent on honey bee pollination,” according to the foundation.

“One crop, almonds, depends entirely on the honey bee for pollination at bloom time,” the American Beekeeping Foundation added.

The honey bee population in North America has been affected by Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) disease, mites and possibly the use of neonicotinoid pesticides, according to the Harvard University Library.

On average, beekeepers in the U.S. lost an estimated 40 percent of their managed honey bee colonies from April 2017 to April 2018, according to Bee Informed, a nationwide collaboration of research efforts to better understand the decline of honeybees.

"We need to help honey bees, absolutely. Even improving their life a little would have a big effect on the global scale. Of course, the honeybees have many other problems as well: pesticides, habitat loss and so on, but diseases come hand in hand with these life-quality problems,” Freitak said.

“If we can help honey bees to be healthier and if we can save even a small part of the bee population with this invention, I think we have done our good deed and saved the world a little bit," Freitak added.

Fox News' Emilie Ikeda contributed to this report.

Related: https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-12-06/world-s-first-honey-bee-vaccine-seeks-to-save-dying-pollinators

2019 Annual Apiary Registration Form and Notification

LA County Agricultural Commissioner.jpg

Registration in California:

Anyone who keeps bees in California must register with their local County Agricultural Commissioner (CAC) on a yearly basis. At a nominal fee per beekeeper, regardless of the number of colonies or apiaries, it's well worth it. There are many reasons to make sure your bees are "on the books." Your County Agricultural Commissioner can be of assistance in:

  • dealing with neighbors and local regulatory agencies

  • notifications about local pesticide/herbicide applications

  • referrals for swarm captures (experienced beekeepers)

Persons registering their apiary for 2019 must do so before January 1, 2019, or when your apiary first enters the county. A $10.00 fee will be required per owner at the time of registration.

Los Angeles County:

2019 Apiary Registration Form (Print out, fill out, return with appropriate fee. Form is revised yearly.)  

2019 Apiary Registration Notification (Contains valuable information.)

Registration Forms Pertaining to Pesticide Use

General Bee Information

Bees in Our Environment Brochure

Information from California Legislative Information Regarding Keeping Bees In California:

CDFA Laws Pertaining to Bee Management & Honey Production

CDFA Apiary Protection Act Agricultural Code 29000-29013 

CDFA Registration & Identifiction of Apiaries 29040-29056

There are over 80 incorporated cities in Los Angeles County. They have different ordinances, regulations, and rules. Make sure you check with the city where you will be keeping your hive(s) to insure you are in compliance.

For more Apiary Registration Information refer to:
https://acwm.lacounty.gov/
https://www.losangelescountybeekeepers.com/apiary-registration/

All the Buzz About Bees - Talking Points Featuring Bill Lewis of Bill's Bees

Bill Lewis, President/Owner of Bill’s Bees and former president of the California State Beekeepers Association and the Los Angeles County Beekeepers Association, shares some of his experiences with bees over the last 30-some years.

"It's not something everybody does." ~Bill Lewis

In this fascinating overview, Bill talks about honey bee activity, hive behavior, bee colony collapse, habitat loss, crop pollination, and honey production. 

Bill Lewis Talking Points.jpg


Take a peek at the amazing life that goes on inside a beehive: how bees communicate, get along inside a hive, and who makes the decisions. Learn how bees collect nectar and pollen and bring it back to the hive to make honey, how honey is harvested and preserved. 

When asked about the best ways to behave around bees, Bill's reply:

"Pretend they're not there." 

Beach TV/CSULB Host: David Kelly
California State University/Long Beach

Bill's Bees

2018 LACBA Annual Holiday Dinner - Online Purchase & Sign Up Closed NOON on Saturday, 12/1/18

You’re Invited to Our
2018 LACBA Annual Holiday Dinner!

The last day to purchase and sign up for dinner was
NOON on Saturday, December 1, 2018.

Pickwick Gardens.jpg

Pickwick Gardens
1001 Riverside Drive, Burbank CA, 91506
(Conference Center - Directions & Map)
When: Monday, December 3, 2018
Time: 6-9pm
Cost: $10/person

This is the time of year when we get to kick back, relax, and talk about anything and everything, especially… BEES! Our Holiday Dinner is a family-friendly open event - feel free to bring your spouse, partner, kids, and friends. We will hold our largest RAFFLE! of the year, and present our Golden Hive Tool Award

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Our delicious dinner will be catered by Outback Catering, owned by LACBA member Doug Noland.



We ask you to bring:

  • An appetizer or dessert, to share (6-8 servings is plenty). Last name: A-M (Desserts), N-Z (Appetizers)

  • An item for our raffle!

Now that we are equipped to take payments on our website, we will NOT be taking payment for dinner or membership dues at the dinner, so please pay your membership dues online.

Your ticket must be purchased online by Noon on Saturday, December 1, 2018 to attend.
Click here to purchase Dinner!

We’d like to encourage you to also pay your 2019 membership dues online before the holiday dinner. As a thank you for purchasing your 2019 membership dues online by
Noon on Saturday,
12/1/18
you’ll receive 10 FREE RAFFLE TICKETS to be used at the dinner.
Click here to purchase 2019 LACBA Membership

We look forward to seeing everyone at our 2018 LACBA Annual Holiday Dinner!